Number 35 - 2011

Summary

This issue echoes some previous articles of Annales monégasques, as it covers some similar topics: the Menton’s confraternity of penitents (Monaco’s confraternity of penitents was studied in issues n°15 and 16) or the International Circus Festival, whose background was covered in the previous issue. Regarding the other studies, they refer to politics, Honoré III’s wedding, the 1911 Constitution, and photographs of the Palace of Monaco in the XIXth century. (full texts in French)

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THE MENTON’S CONFRATERNITIES OF PENITENTS AND THEIR CHAPELS

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - THE MENTON’S CONFRATERNITIES OF PENITENTS AND THEIR CHAPELS

After having dealt with the white and black confraternities, and the Archconfraternity of Monaco (see Annales monégasques n°15, 16 and 28), the author now talks about their counterpart from Menton. Indeed, until 1861 and its secession to France, Menton was part of the principality and as a result, had a common religious history. (full text in French)

THE MENTON’S CONFRATERNITIES OF PENITENTS AND THEIR CHAPELS - 2011

Louis BAUDOIN
Summary
ROYAL WEDDING. HONORÉ III AND MARIE-CATHERINE DE BRIGNOLE SALE

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - ROYAL WEDDING. HONORÉ III AND MARIE-CATHERINE DE BRIGNOLE SALE

This article presents a talks analysis about the wedding of Honoré III, some detailed plans and ceremonies. This marriage was important because the bride was not French as she came from Genoa, and that this was the last wedding before the French Revolution. (full text in French)

ROYAL WEDDING. HONORÉ III AND MARIE-CATHERINE DE BRIGNOLE SALE - 2011

Claude-Aline ENCENAS
Summary
HOW DID THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO BECOME A CONSTITUTIONAL STATE ?

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - HOW DID THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO BECOME A CONSTITUTIONAL STATE ?

On January, 5th 1911, Prince Albert I granted his subjects a Constitution which transformed the absolute monarchy into a modern law, based on a constitutional system. The author presents the legal details of such a fundamental change. Indeed, adjustments have been made since 1911, and this constitution is the base of the current political life in Monaco. (full text in French)

HOW DID THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO BECOME A CONSTITUTIONAL STATE ? - 2011

Georges GRINDA
Summary
THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO : THIRTY-SIX YEARS AGO

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO : THIRTY-SIX YEARS AGO

This article presents the circus festival year after year until 2010, with the originalities depending on the represented countries. It also highlights the new circus acts which became more and more aesthetics. (full text in French)

THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO : THIRTY-SIX YEARS AGO - 2011

Martine ROUSSEAU-CHATELAIN
Summary
ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCELY PALACE IN THE END OF THE 19<sup>th</sup> CENTURY, AS SEEN BY THE PHOTOGRAPH WALBURG DE BRAY

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCELY PALACE IN THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY, AS SEEN BY THE PHOTOGRAPH WALBURG DE BRAY

Jean Auguste Théodore de Bray, also called Walburg de Bray, was a famous photographer in his time. His original glass plates kept in the princely palace’s archives, are published for the very first time. (full text in French)

ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCELY PALACE IN THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY, AS SEEN BY THE PHOTOGRAPH WALBURG DE BRAY - 2011

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Number 34 - 2010

Summary

The third and last part of the Duke of Valentinois’ travel diary is presented in this issue, as well as two articles relatively contemporary : the first one is dedicated to an episode which took place during World War II in Monaco, while the other one recounts the creation of the International Circus Festival by Prince Rainier III. Lastly, the history of the Monaco Visitation Order and archives documents written in the 15th century, are both topics also covered in this issue. (full texts in French)

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THE ORDER OF THE VISITATION OF HOLY MARY IN MONACO (1663-1793)

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - THE ORDER OF THE VISITATION OF HOLY MARY IN MONACO (1663-1793)

The Order of the visitation of Holy Mary was founded in 1610 by Saint-François de Sales and Saint-Jeanne de Chantal.  Its history, from its origins to its dismantling, illustrates the Monegasque society of the 17th and 18th centuries. The princes of Monaco and their family were close to this Order. (full text in French)

THE ORDER OF THE VISITATION OF HOLY MARY IN MONACO (1663-1793) - 2010

Olivia ANTONI
Summary
PRINCE RAINIER III CREATED THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - PRINCE RAINIER III CREATED THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO

Richly illustrated by archives photographies, this article covers the history of the International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo, which is nowadays a key event. But this has not always been the case… (full text in French)

PRINCE RAINIER III CREATED THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO - 2010

Maryse BIANCHERI
Summary
DECEMBER, 14<sup>th</sup> 1943 : THE NETZTENDER 44 TORPEDOING IN THE PORT OF MONACO

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - DECEMBER, 14th 1943 : THE NETZTENDER 44 TORPEDOING IN THE PORT OF MONACO

The torpedoing of the german ship Netztender 44 is not a well-known episode of Second World War which occurred in the principality. Relying on different testimonies of that time and a detailed reconstruction, this article tells us more about this period, when Monaco, a haven of peace, also faced several civilian casualties. (full text in French)

DECEMBER, 14th 1943 : THE NETZTENDER 44 TORPEDOING IN THE PORT OF MONACO - 2010

Christian BURLE/André Z. LABARRERE
Summary
ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : ABOUT JEAN I, LORD OF MONACO (1419-1454)

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : ABOUT JEAN I, LORD OF MONACO (1419-1454)

Two documents, of the utmost historical importance, are translated from latin and preceded by some instructions. They refer to Jean Grimaldi’s feudal investiture and the donation of Menton and Roquebrune lordships by the Duke of Savoy (December 19th 1448). Then, the documents present Jean’s will, “charte fondamentale du droit grimaldien” (April, 5th 1454). (full text in French)

ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : ABOUT JEAN I, LORD OF MONACO (1419-1454) - 2010

Yves GIRAUDON
Summary
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). THIRD PART.

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). THIRD PART.

In this third and last part, Prince Antoine describes several cities, among which Suze, Chambéry, Geneva, Lausanne, Basel, Strasbourg, Manheim, Stuttgart, Munich, Francfort, Mayence, Cologne, Utrecht and Amsterdam. The duke hurriedly went back to Paris after this stay, without mentioning any explanation. Was it his father’s wish as the journey took a long time? (full text in French)

THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). THIRD PART. - 2010

Gustave SAIGE
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Number 33 - 2009

Summary

This volume publishes the second parts of Aurelia Spinola’s life and the Duke of Valentinois’ travel diary. Besides, two other articles are dedicated to art in the 18th century : a musical correspondence, and the wanderings of a Monegasque painter, called Jean-Baptiste Vignali. Lastly, a study recounts a quite funny episode which took place in Roquebrune in the 19th century. (full texts in French)

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ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A MUSICAL CORRESPONDENCE IN THE 18<sup>th</sup> CENTURY

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A MUSICAL CORRESPONDENCE IN THE 18th CENTURY

Prince Antoine I was well-known as being the “musician prince”. His passion for the music was so intense that he constituted an orchestra who played Italian or French scores every day. However, he only corresponded with French composers. This article is based on quotes from some letters between the prince and Destouches, Couperin, Pécourt and Rebel, in particular from 1722 to 1731. (full text in French)

ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A MUSICAL CORRESPONDENCE IN THE 18th CENTURY - 2009

Paule DRUILHE-FAVRE
Summary
PRINCELY PATRONAGE AND ASSERTION DURING THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT. HONORÉ III AND THE MONEGASQUE PAINTER JEAN-BAPTISTE VIGNALI

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - PRINCELY PATRONAGE AND ASSERTION DURING THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT. HONORÉ III AND THE MONEGASQUE PAINTER JEAN-BAPTISTE VIGNALI

This article deals with the patron role adopted by the princes of Monaco, relying on the example of the Monegasque painter named Jean-Baptiste Vignali. He was taught thanks to Honoré III’s generosity and had an enviable career in France and in Italy, ruined by the French Revolution hazards.  (full text in French)

PRINCELY PATRONAGE AND ASSERTION DURING THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT. HONORÉ III AND THE MONEGASQUE PAINTER JEAN-BAPTISTE VIGNALI - 2009

Thomas FOUILLERON
Summary
THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17<sup>th</sup> CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. SECOND PART.

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17th CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. SECOND PART.

This is the second part of the article about Aurelia Spinola, published in the previous review, whose history is told by a clergyman named Francesco Fluvio Frugoni. He also depicted the lifestyle of the Honoré II’s Court. (full text in French)

THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17th CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. SECOND PART. - 2009

Raffaella NOERO
Summary
ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A PIECE OF EVIDENCE IN THE CASE "DE LA CASSETTE" IN ROQUEBRUNE (1819)

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A PIECE OF EVIDENCE IN THE CASE "DE LA CASSETTE" IN ROQUEBRUNE (1819)

At that time, much has been written about what happened in 1819, in Roquebrune village. According to Honoré V, this was an “absurd mystification” and a political affront, but it created an idolatry phenomenon within the population. (full text in French)

ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A PIECE OF EVIDENCE IN THE CASE "DE LA CASSETTE" IN ROQUEBRUNE (1819) - 2009

Claude PASSET
Summary
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). SECOND PART.

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). SECOND PART.

In this second part, the Duke of Valentinois mainly wrote down about Rome, and described several cities like Spoletto, Bologne, Modena, Parma, Plaisance, Pavia, Milan, Bergame, Mantoue, Ferrare, Malamocco, Venice, Padoue, Verceil and put an end to his trip in Turin, in Savoy at that time. The last part, published in the Annales monégasques n°34, deals with Swiss and German cities. (full text in French)

THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). SECOND PART. - 2009

Gustave SAIGE
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IN MEMORIAM : JEAN-BAPTISTE ROBERT

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - IN MEMORIAM : JEAN-BAPTISTE ROBERT

IN MEMORIAM : JEAN-BAPTISTE ROBERT - 2009

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Number 32 - 2008

Summary

This issue publishes the first part of the Duke of Valentinois’ travel diary, Antoine I. The other three articles deal with various topics : the Monegasques and the “monnoye” in the 17th and 18th centuries; some of the private chapels in Monaco in the 18th and 19th centuries; and the first part of a genoa aristocrat’s destiny, who became princess of Monaco : Aurelia Spinola. (full texts in French)

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THE MONEGASQUES AND THE « MONNOYE » IN THE 17<sup>th</sup> AND 18<sup>th</sup> CENTURIES, OR SPIRIT AND MATTER

Article from Number 32 - 2008 - THE MONEGASQUES AND THE « MONNOYE » IN THE 17th AND 18th CENTURIES, OR SPIRIT AND MATTER

The power of issuing money was one of the best ways to affirm a state’s sovereignty. The princes who used this money had different opinions, just like their daily concerns. They were taken in a financial system and had to adapt, in order to survive from day to day. The author wonders about the room for a possible symbolic in the princes’ minds. (full text in French)

THE MONEGASQUES AND THE « MONNOYE » IN THE 17th AND 18th CENTURIES, OR SPIRIT AND MATTER - 2008

Olivia ANTONI
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SOME PRIVATE CHAPELS OF MONACO (18<sup>th</sup>-19<sup>th</sup> CENTURIES)

Article from Number 32 - 2008 - SOME PRIVATE CHAPELS OF MONACO (18th-19th CENTURIES)

This article complements the other studies dedicated to the chapels, published in the the Annales monégasques n°7, 15, 16 and 31. It deals with the history of some private family chapels in the Monaco surburb, namely the chapels of the Annonciade, Saint-Roman, the Immaculate Conception ( on the rock, the condamine and La Costa areas), Saint-Jean-Baptiste in the Larvotto area, the chapel of the Gonzalès family situated in Bas-Moulins, and the one of Saint-Pierre, in the Carnier area. (full text in French)

SOME PRIVATE CHAPELS OF MONACO (18th-19th CENTURIES) - 2008

Louis BAUDOIN
Summary
THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17<sup>th</sup> CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. FIRST PART.

Article from Number 32 - 2008 - THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17th CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. FIRST PART.

In July 1641, Aurelia Spinola married Hercule, Prince Honoré II’s son. Widowed young, she had to face a period of political troubles. Her history was recounted by a clergyman, Francesco Fulvio Frugoni, who also depicted the lifestyle of the Honoré II’s Court. (full text in French)

THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17th CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. FIRST PART. - 2008

Raffaella NOERO
Summary
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). FIRST PART.

Article from Number 32 - 2008 - THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). FIRST PART.

Antoine, Duke of Valentinois, future Prince Antoine I, undertook a “Big Tour” in order to complete his education. He wrote down his impressions in a travel journal. He visited several countries and described the towns he passed through with more or less details. This first part is dedicated to his impressions about the main cities of the Riviera until Genoa, Pisa, Lucques, Pistoia, Florence and Sienna. The second part of this trip is published in the issue n° 33 of the Annales monégasques. (full text in French)

THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). FIRST PART. - 2008

Gustave SAIGE
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Number 31 - 2007

Summary

Two articles about the medieval history form the chronological basis of this issue : one of them talks about the siege of Monaco 500 years ago, while the other article is the second and last part of the history of the Monaco castle construction in 1215 (the first part is studied in the issue n°29). Then, the religion topic is dedicated to the chapels within the Palace, and the tribulations of the bishop François-Honoré Grimaldi. Finally, the education in the 18th and 19th centuries, the monetary policy under Louis II, and a presentation of the artist Kees Van Dongen, are the other topics presented in this issue. (full texts in French)

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THE CHAPELS OF THE PRINCELY PALACE AND THE PALATINE PARISH

Article from Number 31 - 2007 - THE CHAPELS OF THE PRINCELY PALACE AND THE PALATINE PARISH

Nowadays, there is only one chapel within the Palace : Saint-Jean-Baptiste chapel. Before dealing with its history, the article highlights other missing places : Saint-François chapel, especially dedicated to the women of the palace, and the chapels of Saint-Louis-de-Gonzague and the Virgin. (full text in French)

THE CHAPELS OF THE PRINCELY PALACE AND THE PALATINE PARISH - 2007

Louis BAUDOIN
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THE TRIBULATIONS OF FRANÇOIS-HONORÉ GRIMALDI, BESANÇON ARCHBISHOP (1669-1748)

Article from Number 31 - 2007 - THE TRIBULATIONS OF FRANÇOIS-HONORÉ GRIMALDI, BESANÇON ARCHBISHOP (1669-1748)

François-Honoré Grimaldi was Prince Antoine I’s brother. This article recounts the dramas and the financial troubles which hindered his ecclesiastical career, based on the correspondence with his brother and the government. His concerns were fundamental as they constitute the social melting pot that the Grimaldis belong to. (full text in French)

THE TRIBULATIONS OF FRANÇOIS-HONORÉ GRIMALDI, BESANÇON ARCHBISHOP (1669-1748) - 2007

Henri BON
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THE MONETARY POLICY OF PRINCE LOUIS II

Article from Number 31 - 2007 - THE MONETARY POLICY OF PRINCE LOUIS II

The power of issuing money was one of the best ways to affirm a state’s sovereignty. But the way Prince Louis II judiciously used it during the Second World War, had a strong symbolic magnitude. (full text in French)

THE MONETARY POLICY OF PRINCE LOUIS II - 2007

Christian CHARLET et Jean-Louis CHARLET
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THE EDUCATION IN MONACO IN THE 18<sup>th</sup> AND 19<sup>th</sup> CENTURIES

Article from Number 31 - 2007 - THE EDUCATION IN MONACO IN THE 18th AND 19th CENTURIES

The secular education was officially established by Prince Albert I in 1911, within the framework of constitutional arrangements. The clergymen taught reading, writing and other core subjects. This is the subject of this article which covers this topic through ages. (full text in French)

 

THE EDUCATION IN MONACO IN THE 18th AND 19th CENTURIES - 2007

Alexandre GRABOY-GROBESCO
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500 YEARS AGO, THE SIEGE OF MONACO : AN INDEPENDENCE FORTUNATELY PRESERVED

Article from Number 31 - 2007 - 500 YEARS AGO, THE SIEGE OF MONACO : AN INDEPENDENCE FORTUNATELY PRESERVED

The relationships between the Monaco Lordship and the Genoa Republic often changed as the independence of the principality depended on the acceptance of Genoa. The siege of Monaco in 1506-1507 is one of the episodes that the author recounts, by depicting the political, regional and international context of that time. (full text in French)

500 YEARS AGO, THE SIEGE OF MONACO : AN INDEPENDENCE FORTUNATELY PRESERVED - 2007

Inès IGIER-PASSET
Summary
ABOUT THE MONACO CASTLE’S FOUNDATIONS IN 1215 (SECOND PART : 1215-1297)

Article from Number 31 - 2007 - ABOUT THE MONACO CASTLE’S FOUNDATIONS IN 1215 (SECOND PART : 1215-1297)

This is the second part of an article published in the Annales monégasques n° 29, which gives more informations about the foundations of the castle in Monaco. (full text in French)

ABOUT THE MONACO CASTLE’S FOUNDATIONS IN 1215 (SECOND PART : 1215-1297) - 2007

Claude Passet
Summary
FROM ROTTERDAM TO MONACO : THE ITINERARY OF KEES VAN DONGEN, A COLOURFUL PAINTER (1877-1968)

Article from Number 31 - 2007 - FROM ROTTERDAM TO MONACO : THE ITINERARY OF KEES VAN DONGEN, A COLOURFUL PAINTER (1877-1968)

Born in a Rotterdam surburb, Kees van Dongen settled in Monaco in 1949, after having stayed in Paris for several years. His death, in 1968, was undercovered by the political events of that time. This article presents the eccentric and talented painter, relying on an unreleased interview about his career. (full text in French)

FROM ROTTERDAM TO MONACO : THE ITINERARY OF KEES VAN DONGEN, A COLOURFUL PAINTER (1877-1968) - 2007

Martine ROUSSEAU-CHATELAIN
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Number 30 - 2006

Summary

This issue deals with extremely various topics through the centuries. A Middle Ages study takes us to the 15th century, on the trail of Jean Grimaldi, who was Sir Lambert’s son; another one is dedicated to the everyday life of soldiers stationed in the Monaco garrison in the 17th and 18th centuries. An article describes the board and lodging in the Principality in the 19th century. To finish with, literature is honoured with Prince Florestan I, Sacha Guitry’s honest hero; and a study is dedicated to Hercule Florence, a forgotten Monegasque figure who was one of the photography instigators. (full texts in French)

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PRINCE FLORENSTAN I (1785-1856), A HERO FROM SACHA GUITRY’S OPERETTA. REAL AND TRANSFORMED LIFE.

Article from Number 30 - 2006 - PRINCE FLORENSTAN I (1785-1856), A HERO FROM SACHA GUITRY’S OPERETTA. REAL AND TRANSFORMED LIFE.

Sacha Guitry made Prince Florestan I an operetta hero. Is it because he stood for a principality based on an operetta? Or is it because of the sovereign who enjoyed theater? What are the limits of the legend and when does the real life start? The author makes a link between Sacha Guitry’s work and the historical truth. (full text in French)

PRINCE FLORENSTAN I (1785-1856), A HERO FROM SACHA GUITRY’S OPERETTA. REAL AND TRANSFORMED LIFE. - 2006

Thomas FOUILLERON
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THE BOARD AND LODGING IN MONACO IN THE 19<sup>th</sup> CENTURY

Article from Number 30 - 2006 - THE BOARD AND LODGING IN MONACO IN THE 19th CENTURY

We can find a trace of hotels from the 17th century; but their development started in the second-half of the 19th century, when means of transport, like the train or by the sea, got better. The Société des Bains de Mer attracted tourists thanks to the casino, settled in the Monte-Carlo area, as Charles III wished. (full text in French)

THE BOARD AND LODGING IN MONACO IN THE 19th CENTURY - 2006

Thérèse GHIZZI / Robert FILLON
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JEAN GRIMALDI, AGED EIGHTEEN, HIS FATHER’S SPOKESMAN WITH KING CHARLES VIII. MAY 1486.

Article from Number 30 - 2006 - JEAN GRIMALDI, AGED EIGHTEEN, HIS FATHER’S SPOKESMAN WITH KING CHARLES VIII. MAY 1486.

At the age of 18, when he went to the French Court to meet his future wife Antoinette of Savoy, Jean Grimaldi was requested by his father to carry out a delicate mission. This article is a good opportunity to immerse in the medieval time, when the Monaco Lordship had to fight against the other Lordships who disputed his territory. (full text in French)

JEAN GRIMALDI, AGED EIGHTEEN, HIS FATHER’S SPOKESMAN WITH KING CHARLES VIII. MAY 1486. - 2006

Inès IGIER-PASSET
Summary
FROM MONACO TO BRAZIL : HERCULE FLORENCE, A FORGOTTEN TRAVELER AND INVENTOR

Article from Number 30 - 2006 - FROM MONACO TO BRAZIL : HERCULE FLORENCE, A FORGOTTEN TRAVELER AND INVENTOR

Hercule Florence was born in 1804 in Nice, from a Monegasque mother. Attracted by wide open spaces and discoveries, he migrated to Brazil twenty years later, as part of a scientific expedition. He became an ingenious inventor : “zoophonia”, “polygraphia”, but above all, he created in August 1833, the photography concept. Furthermore, he was the first one to use this word. (full text in French)

FROM MONACO TO BRAZIL : HERCULE FLORENCE, A FORGOTTEN TRAVELER AND INVENTOR - 2006

William LURET
Summary
GARRISON TOWN : INTEGRATION TOWN ? THE SERVICEMEN AND MONACO IN THE 17<sup>th</sup> AND 18<sup>th</sup> CENTURIES

Article from Number 30 - 2006 - GARRISON TOWN : INTEGRATION TOWN ? THE SERVICEMEN AND MONACO IN THE 17th AND 18th CENTURIES

In 1605, Monaco became a garrison town. This article talks about the French servicemen who stood in for the Spanish, after 1641. They offered the local population an additional work force, their own health workers, and they were also at the origin of a commodity traffic that benefited all. However, this cohabitation was a source of brawls and troubles. In this case, can we talk about integration ? (full text in French)

GARRISON TOWN : INTEGRATION TOWN ? THE SERVICEMEN AND MONACO IN THE 17th AND 18th CENTURIES - 2006

Olivia NOAT-ANTONI
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Number 29 - 2005

Summary

Two articles about the Middle Ages deal with the history of the Monaco castle construction in 1215 (in a first part), and an episode about Sir Charles Grimaldi’s life in the 14th century. Then, among the three studies of the 19th century, one is dedicated to the “Quartier des Moulins”, another one talks about Guillaume Apollinaire, and the last one refers to the Belle Epoque houses of Monte-Carlo. To finish with, an unusual occurrence ends this issue : the translation, in Monegasque speaking, of “Letters from my Windmill” written by Alphonse Daudet, including a CD. (full texts in French)

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THE MOULINS AREA BETWEEN 1800 AND 1815

Article from Number 29 - 2005 - THE MOULINS AREA BETWEEN 1800 AND 1815

Nowadays, the Moulins area is composed of luxury boutiques, but its name refers to history. Relying on maps, plans and photographies, this article deals with this industrial area and population, where several mills were built (flour and oil mills), from the 13th century to the middle of the 20th century. (full text in French)

THE MOULINS AREA BETWEEN 1800 AND 1815 - 2005

Thérèse GHIZZI / Robert FILLON
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FEBRUARY 1338 : CHARLES GRIMALDI COMMITTED HIMSELF TO THE SERVICE OF THE FRENCH KING

Article from Number 29 - 2005 - FEBRUARY 1338 : CHARLES GRIMALDI COMMITTED HIMSELF TO THE SERVICE OF THE FRENCH KING

Charles Grimaldi was Rainier’s son, admiral of France and victorious of Zierikzee. He was involved with his father by fighting alongside the French king, Philippe VI, until 1341. His victories permitted him to have subsidies, and he undertook some fortification works around the rock of Monaco. (full text in French)

FEBRUARY 1338 : CHARLES GRIMALDI COMMITTED HIMSELF TO THE SERVICE OF THE FRENCH KING - 2005

Inès IGIER-PASSET
Summary
ABOUT THE MONACO CASTLE’S FOUNDATIONS IN 1215. THE DOCUMENTARY SOURCES (FIRST PART).

Article from Number 29 - 2005 - ABOUT THE MONACO CASTLE’S FOUNDATIONS IN 1215. THE DOCUMENTARY SOURCES (FIRST PART).

This article refers to the original texts which deal with the foundations of the castle in Monaco. Besides, more recent documents and the results of historical researches allow us to have a better understanding about it. The second part of this study is published in the Annales monégasques n°31. (full text in French)

ABOUT THE MONACO CASTLE’S FOUNDATIONS IN 1215. THE DOCUMENTARY SOURCES (FIRST PART). - 2005

Claude PASSET
Summary
GUILLAUME APOLLINAIRE : CHILDHOOD MEMORIES IN BEAUSOLEIL

Article from Number 29 - 2005 - GUILLAUME APOLLINAIRE : CHILDHOOD MEMORIES IN BEAUSOLEIL

Guillaume Apollinaire spent several years in Monaco and was at Saint-Charles school. He wrote down his memories in a collection entitled “La vie anecdotique”, and depicted several contemporary characters, famous or unknown. Among them, Adrien Blandignère, an eccentric writer. This subject is a good opportunity to go back to the Carnieri area in Beausoleil, in the end of the 19th century, with pictures of that time. (full text in French)

GUILLAUME APOLLINAIRE : CHILDHOOD MEMORIES IN BEAUSOLEIL - 2005

Martine ROUSSEAU-CHATELAIN
Summary
BELLE EPOQUE HOUSES IN MONTE-CARLO

Article from Number 29 - 2005 - BELLE EPOQUE HOUSES IN MONTE-CARLO

In Monaco, the houses have a thing in common : they were built after 1861, when Prince Charles III decided to restructure his State, because of the assignment of Menton and Roquebrune. Several photographies illustrate this article. (full text in French)

BELLE EPOQUE HOUSES IN MONTE-CARLO - 2005

Michel STEVE
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" LETTRES DE MON MOULIN " BY ALPHONE DAUDET. THE MONEGASQUE SPEAKING VERSION, BY THE CANON GEORGES FRANZI.

Article from Number 29 - 2005 - " LETTRES DE MON MOULIN " BY ALPHONE DAUDET. THE MONEGASQUE SPEAKING VERSION, BY THE CANON GEORGES FRANZI.

Only a few letters published by Alphonse Daudet between 1866 and 1868, were translated par the Canon Georges Franzi, a Provence lover. The letters, read in the Monegasque speaking language, are also available in the three CD attached to the hard copy of this issue. (full text in French)

" LETTRES DE MON MOULIN " BY ALPHONE DAUDET. THE MONEGASQUE SPEAKING VERSION, BY THE CANON GEORGES FRANZI. - 2005

René STEFANELLI
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Number 28 - 2004

Summary

In this issue, an article dedicated to the religion in the 19th century talks about the history of “Divine Mercy Archconfraternity”. It also echoes to the 22th issue of Annales monégasques, by highlighting one of the Treaty of Péronne consequences with the expulsion of the Spanish garrison from Monaco. It also deals with local traditions, the sportive developments within the principality in the 19th century, and an important figure among the Monaco sovereigns : Louise-Félicité-Victoire d’Aumont. To finish with, an atypical article gathers together history and geography. (full texts in French)

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THE MERCY ARCHCONFRATERNITY OF MONACO

Article from Number 28 - 2004 - THE MERCY ARCHCONFRATERNITY OF MONACO

This article is the continuation of previous articles by the same author published in Annales monégasques n°15 and 16, concerning the “White Penitents” and the “Black Penitents” confraternities. After the French Revolution and despite the popular protests, both confraternities were dissolved. In 1813 they merged and became an archconfraternity, which demonstrated the Monegasques’ attachment to traditions. (full text in French)

THE MERCY ARCHCONFRATERNITY OF MONACO - 2004

Louis BAUDOIN
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HONORÉ II’S MANIFESTO AFTER THE EXPLUSION OF THE SPANISH GARRISON FROM MONACO. NOVEMBER 18<sup>th</sup> 1641.

Article from Number 28 - 2004 - HONORÉ II’S MANIFESTO AFTER THE EXPLUSION OF THE SPANISH GARRISON FROM MONACO. NOVEMBER 18th 1641.

This “Manifesto” was written after the Spanish expulsion by Prince Honoré II, helped by some of his subjects. The text, published in its entirety, is composed of many notes and narrates this episode. A letter from the Prince to the Count of Siruela, regarding the retoration of his golden fleece, is also presented. (full text in French)

HONORÉ II’S MANIFESTO AFTER THE EXPLUSION OF THE SPANISH GARRISON FROM MONACO. NOVEMBER 18th 1641. - 2004

Franck BIANCHERI
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“HONOUR AND PERSEVERANCE”. THE SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN MONACO

Article from Number 28 - 2004 - “HONOUR AND PERSEVERANCE”. THE SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN MONACO

The study refers to the sports practiced in Monaco since 1860, such as aquatic and ball games, motor racings, gymnastics, boxing, fencing, shooting and biking. The “Herculis” stadium, future “ASM”, participated to the practice of these sports and transformed Monaco into a world-renowned place of sporting events. (full text in French)

“HONOUR AND PERSEVERANCE”. THE SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN MONACO - 2004

Claude-Aline ENCENAS
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MY BEAUTIFUL MONACO. MEMORIES AND TRADITIONS.

Article from Number 28 - 2004 - MY BEAUTIFUL MONACO. MEMORIES AND TRADITIONS.

This article plunges us into Monaco from the late 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, thanks to the Louis Notari’s manuscript transcription that has never been published before. (full text in French)

MY BEAUTIFUL MONACO. MEMORIES AND TRADITIONS. - 2004

Louis NOTARI
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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE MONEGASQUE AMPHITHEATRE

Article from Number 28 - 2004 - PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE MONEGASQUE AMPHITHEATRE

The region of Monaco’s geography and geology partly explains its populating and the originality of its history. (full text in French)

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE MONEGASQUE AMPHITHEATRE - 2004

Jean-Baptiste ROBERT
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LOUISE-FELICITE-VICTOIRE D’AUMONT, DUCHESS OF MAZARIN (1759-1826). A SMART BET FOR MONACO.

Article from Number 28 - 2004 - LOUISE-FELICITE-VICTOIRE D’AUMONT, DUCHESS OF MAZARIN (1759-1826). A SMART BET FOR MONACO.

Louise-Félicité-Victoire d’Aumont, Duchess of Mazarin, married the future prince Honoré IV of Monaco, on July 15th 1777. Their divorce in 1793 is the subject of this article which highlights the financial and family troubles that led to this separation. (full text in French)

LOUISE-FELICITE-VICTOIRE D’AUMONT, DUCHESS OF MAZARIN (1759-1826). A SMART BET FOR MONACO. - 2004

Martine ROUSSEAU-CHATELAIN
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Number 27 - 2003

Summary

This issue is composed of a study dedicated to the fortifications of Monaco, while another article talks about the coin of the principality. This volume also covers more specific topics such as the “desert” construction desired by Marie de Lorraine, the future of the princely family during the French Revolution, the place of Honoré V in politics, but also the work of the sculptor Constant Roux in the court of Prince Albert I. (full texts in French)

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THE DEVOTA REPRESENTATION, PATRON SAINT OF MONACO, ON THE MONEGASQUE COINS AND ITS SIGNIFICATION

Article from Number 27 - 2003 - THE DEVOTA REPRESENTATION, PATRON SAINT OF MONACO, ON THE MONEGASQUE COINS AND ITS SIGNIFICATION

In the 17th century, Devota, patron saint of Monaco, was chosen to be represented on the coins of this young principality. The author describes the representations of Devota on coins until the 20th century. (full text in French)

THE DEVOTA REPRESENTATION, PATRON SAINT OF MONACO, ON THE MONEGASQUE COINS AND ITS SIGNIFICATION - 2003

Christian CHARLET
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THE PRINCELY FAMILY OF MONACO DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

Article from Number 27 - 2003 - THE PRINCELY FAMILY OF MONACO DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

In these troubled times, the members of the princely family reacted different ways. This article covers each of them; Prince Honoré III, his former wife Marie-Catherine de Brignole Sale, he separated from in 1771, their children, daughters-in-law and grandchildren. Each in their own way, had to put up with the French Revolution. (full text in French)

THE PRINCELY FAMILY OF MONACO DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION - 2003

Claude-Alice ENCENAS
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A PRINCE IN POLITICS. HONORÉ V OF MONACO, PEER OF FRANCE, OR THE REACTION IN THE MODERNIZATION (1814-1841)

Article from Number 27 - 2003 - A PRINCE IN POLITICS. HONORÉ V OF MONACO, PEER OF FRANCE, OR THE REACTION IN THE MODERNIZATION (1814-1841)

The work achieved in France by Honoré V is little known but fundamental. He had to face the French Revolution and the unstable political life with the successive restorations. His ultimate goal was to bring his family back to their social and economic status. (full text in French)

A PRINCE IN POLITICS. HONORÉ V OF MONACO, PEER OF FRANCE, OR THE REACTION IN THE MODERNIZATION (1814-1841) - 2003

Thomas FOUILLERON
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THE “DESERT”, MARIE DE LORRAINE’S PIED-A-TERRE ON THE ROCK

Article from Number 27 - 2003 - THE “DESERT”, MARIE DE LORRAINE’S PIED-A-TERRE ON THE ROCK

Among the residences built on the rock, the « Desert » and its garden occupied a special place. Built in 1718 following a princess wish, it was successively the residence of the first governor of Monaco, then a casino and was demolished in 1889 to be substituted by a school. Nowadays, it is situated for a part, on the FANB school, and the other part is presently occupied by the government. (full text in French)

THE “DESERT”, MARIE DE LORRAINE’S PIED-A-TERRE ON THE ROCK - 2003

Thérèse GHIZZI/Robert FILLON
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CONSTANT ROUX (1865-1942), A SCULPTOR AT THE PRINCE ALBERT I’S COURT

Article from Number 27 - 2003 - CONSTANT ROUX (1865-1942), A SCULPTOR AT THE PRINCE ALBERT I’S COURT

Born into a modest family, Constant Roux became the most requested sculptor from the Prince Albert I’s Court. He also worked in Paris, creating monumental statues and official portraits. (full text in French)

CONSTANT ROUX (1865-1942), A SCULPTOR AT THE PRINCE ALBERT I’S COURT - 2003

Laurent NOET
Summary
THE MONACO’S FORTIFICATIONS. THE NEW DATING FOLLOWING THE RECENT DISCOVERY OF F. RUBEUS, AN ITALIAN ARCHITECH IN MONACO IN THE 16<sup>th</sup> CENTURY.

Article from Number 27 - 2003 - THE MONACO’S FORTIFICATIONS. THE NEW DATING FOLLOWING THE RECENT DISCOVERY OF F. RUBEUS, AN ITALIAN ARCHITECH IN MONACO IN THE 16th CENT...

This article provides even more clarifications about an article previously published in Annales monégasques n°3, entitled The fortifications of Monaco. (full text in French)

THE MONACO’S FORTIFICATIONS. THE NEW DATING FOLLOWING THE RECENT DISCOVERY OF F. RUBEUS, AN ITALIAN ARCHITECH IN MONACO IN THE 16th CENTURY. - 2003

Claude PASSET
Summary
IN MEMORIAM : PAULE DRUILHE-FAVRE

Article from Number 27 - 2003 - IN MEMORIAM : PAULE DRUILHE-FAVRE

IN MEMORIAM : PAULE DRUILHE-FAVRE - 2003

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Number 26 - 2002 (Out of print version)

Summary

This issue commemorates the 20th anniversary of the death of Princess Grace, which occurred in 1982. After an article in tribute to the princess, the background of Grace of Monaco is told and illustrated by very rich iconography. (full texts in English)

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HOMMAGE TO HER SERENE HIGHNESS PRINCESS GRACE OF MONACO

Article from Number 26 - 2002 - HOMMAGE TO HER SERENE HIGHNESS PRINCESS GRACE OF MONACO

This article refers to broad lines of Miss Grace Patricia Kelly’s life, who became Princess of Monaco by marrying Prince Rainier III. It also highlights the social and humanitarian actions that the princess carried out. (full text in English)

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HOMMAGE TO HER SERENE HIGHNESS PRINCESS GRACE OF MONACO - 2002

Maryse BIANCHERI
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HER SERENE HIGHNESS PRINCESS GRACE OF MONACO (1956-1982)

Article from Number 26 - 2002 - HER SERENE HIGHNESS PRINCESS GRACE OF MONACO (1956-1982)

This second article illustrates Princess Grace’s life thanks to some unpublished pictures, commented by quotes from the Journal de Monaco. (full text in English)

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HER SERENE HIGHNESS PRINCESS GRACE OF MONACO (1956-1982) - 2002

Franck BIANCHERI/Régis LECUYER
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