Number 44 - 2020

Summary

Prince Honoré III was born three hundred years ago, in 1720, , and reigned over the Principality for sixty years, from 1733 to 1793. An Art History article pays tribute to him through the study of portraits realized by a rediscovered painter named Marie-Anne Loir, whose work is a part of the Palace collections.

The continued restoration program of the Renaissance frescoes of the palace generated a study and a strong iconographic file on Ferdinand Wagner, a painter from Augsburg recommended by the Count of Württemberg, brother-in-law of Prince Charles III, who restored and created a part of the painted decorations of the Cour d'Honneur of the princely residence in collaboration with two other German painters in the years 1860-1870.

The mythical book of Prince Albert I, whose centenary of death will be celebrated in 2022, La Carrière d’un navigateur, has never been studied. The first edition of the book, which is a collection of autobiographical narratives, published in 1902, was preceded by the publication of articles from 1888.

Princess Alice, second wife of Prince Albert I, got known to a certain social, artistic and literary background, quite representative of European society at the end of the 19th century. In particular, she forged relationships with Oscar Wilde, Pierre Loti, Margaret Brooke, Frank Harris, Isidore de Lara, who are still known today or have fallen into oblivion...

The appointment of a new Archbishop of Monaco at the start of 2020 is an opportunity to examine episcopal heraldry in the Principality from the end of the 19th century. Symbolic representations obeying codes from the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical coats of arms are intended to reflect the personality, origins, or pastoral program of their bearer.

Contemporary history is evocated through a figure from the early reign of Prince Rainier III, Martin Dale. In 1960, this twenty-eight-year-old former American diplomat was appointed private advisor to the sovereign, responsible for attracting investment from across the Atlantic to the Principality and transforming it into a financial center of international stature.

The Franco-Monegasque crisis of 1962-1963 has slowed down the reform momentum. Martin Dale is accused of privileging American interests to the detriment of France. Despite pressure from General de Gaulle, he continued his mission until 1964.

In this time of COVID-19 pandemic, the “document of the year” section takes us back to 1656, when the baroque and brilliant Queen Christina of Sweden, who came from Rome, wanted to make a stopover in Monaco, while the plague was raging in Italy. The sanitary precautions and the political prudence of Prince Honoré II led to the envisaged stage being only a passage at sea, the story of which is kept in the archives of French Foreign Affairs.

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Article from Number 44 - 2020 - The Monaco Family portraits painted by Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783)

In the late 1730s the Parisian artist Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783) painted a series of oil portraits of members of the princely family of Monaco that represent her earliest known original works. Four belong to the collections du Palais princier in Monaco and one to the “Musée d’art et d’histoire” of Saint-Lô in Normandy. Three are of Prince Honoré III and two are of his brother, Marie-Charles-Auguste Grimaldi, comte de Matignon; all but one portray the brothers playing musical instruments.
Thanks to a discovery of a fresh series of letters in the Archives of the Palais princier in Monaco dating from 1737 to 1741 between mademoiselle Loir and her client Jacques de Matignon, duc de Valentinois, and his intendants, Julie Anne Sadie Goode offers in the present article valuable new perspectives on the early career of this under-appreciated XVIIIth century artist, the lives of her subjects, and the artistic, musical and literary milieux that inspired the portraits. In addition, Dr. Sadie Goode draws attention to several other, closely-related portraits also attributed to Loir.

Text in French

The Monaco Family portraits painted by Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783) - 2020

Julie Anne SADIE GOODE
Summary

In the late 1730s the Parisian artist Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783) painted a series of oil portraits of members of the princely family of Monaco that represent her earliest known original works. Four belong to the collections du Palais princier in Monaco and one to the “Musée d’art et d’histoire” of Saint-Lô in Normandy. Three are of Prince Honoré III and two are of his brother, Marie-Charles-Auguste Grimaldi, comte de Matignon; all but one portray the brothers playing musical instruments.
Thanks to a discovery of a fresh series of letters in the Archives of the Palais princier in Monaco dating from 1737 to 1741 between mademoiselle Loir and her client Jacques de Matignon, duc de Valentinois, and his intendants, Julie Anne Sadie Goode offers in the present article valuable new perspectives on the early career of this under-appreciated XVIIIth century artist, the lives of her subjects, and the artistic, musical and literary milieux that inspired the portraits. In addition, Dr. Sadie Goode draws attention to several other, closely-related portraits also attributed to Loir.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Restoration, restitution and creation. The painter Ferdinand Wagner and the wall decorations of the courtyard at the palace of Monaco at the end of...

According to the testimony of Millin, naturalist who came to Monaco 1813, the courtyard’s frescoes were very damaged and “almost entirely erased”. Indeed, when Charles III ascended the throne in the middle of the 19th century, these paintings created in the mid-16th century, needed an urgent restoration. That is the reason why he undertook to restore his residence and turn it back to the mirror of sovereignty.
In 1864, through his brother-in-law the count of Württemberg, the prince appealed to an Augsburg history painter and representative of the Nazarene current, Ferdinand Wagner. The latter got down to the task until 1868 and has been succeeded by two compatriots, Fröschle and then Deschler who worked until 1874. After this time, the four facades of the courtyard went metamorphosed.
Those painters were undoubtedly guided by the remains but also had to be creative to restore a continuous and coherent decoration.

Text in French

Restoration, restitution and creation. The painter Ferdinand Wagner and the wall decorations of the courtyard at the palace of Monaco at the end of the 19th century - 2020

Bernt VON HAGEN
Summary

According to the testimony of Millin, naturalist who came to Monaco 1813, the courtyard’s frescoes were very damaged and “almost entirely erased”. Indeed, when Charles III ascended the throne in the middle of the 19th century, these paintings created in the mid-16th century, needed an urgent restoration. That is the reason why he undertook to restore his residence and turn it back to the mirror of sovereignty.
In 1864, through his brother-in-law the count of Württemberg, the prince appealed to an Augsburg history painter and representative of the Nazarene current, Ferdinand Wagner. The latter got down to the task until 1868 and has been succeeded by two compatriots, Fröschle and then Deschler who worked until 1874. After this time, the four facades of the courtyard went metamorphosed.
Those painters were undoubtedly guided by the remains but also had to be creative to restore a continuous and coherent decoration.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - From anchor to feather, from article to book. Albert I of Monaco and the genesis of La Carrière d’un navigateur

When he was a teenager, Albert, hereditary Prince of Monaco, adopted two principles: to be useful and to leave a mark of his activities. A family and friendly correspondence, also active and appreciated by the recipients, led him to tell about the outstanding episodes of his maritime journey.
In 1888 and 1889, he published two articles in the prestigious Revue des deux mondes. His role as a sovereign has forced him to put aside this writing activity for six years. Then, Albert I of Monaco published three texts in the Nouvelle Revue - “À la chasse”, “La mort d’un cachalot”, “L’âme du marin” – in the Revue de Paris, the Grande Revue, and finally in the Revue scientifique.
Nevertheless, he wished to bring together all these articles in a book which, from the second publication, were given a caption: “La carrière d’un navigateur”.

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From anchor to feather, from article to book. Albert I of Monaco and the genesis of La Carrière d’un navigateur - 2020

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
Summary

When he was a teenager, Albert, hereditary Prince of Monaco, adopted two principles: to be useful and to leave a mark of his activities. A family and friendly correspondence, also active and appreciated by the recipients, led him to tell about the outstanding episodes of his maritime journey.
In 1888 and 1889, he published two articles in the prestigious Revue des deux mondes. His role as a sovereign has forced him to put aside this writing activity for six years. Then, Albert I of Monaco published three texts in the Nouvelle Revue - “À la chasse”, “La mort d’un cachalot”, “L’âme du marin” – in the Revue de Paris, the Grande Revue, and finally in the Revue scientifique.
Nevertheless, he wished to bring together all these articles in a book which, from the second publication, were given a caption: “La carrière d’un navigateur”.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - From Monaco to Borneo, via London and Paris. Literary and artistic friendships around princess Alice and prince Albert I of Monaco

University exegesis means that Princess Alice of Monaco inspired Marcel Proust for the character of the princess of Luxembourg in In Search of Lost Time. At the very least, she went to Geneviève Straus’ ‘Proustian’ salon and, in London (with the complicity of the rani Margaret Brooke) as in Paris, counted numerous friends in the world of letters and arts: Pierre Loti , Guy de Maupassant, Paul Bourget, Frank Harris, Oscar Wilde, Isidore de Lara, Hugues Le Roux, Sarah Bernhardt, etc. The annual exhibition of fine arts created in 1893 and the lyric programming of the salle Garnier during the Belle Époque were a great success thanks to Princess Alice. Albert I of Monaco and herself, for the duration of their married life, have been in fact at the heart of an apparatus of artists, figures from the press, opera or science who set up a cultural lifestyle so important to the reputation of the Principality, between 1880 and 1902.

Text in French

From Monaco to Borneo, via London and Paris. Literary and artistic friendships around princess Alice and prince Albert I of Monaco - 2020

Alain QUELLA-VILLÉGER
Summary

University exegesis means that Princess Alice of Monaco inspired Marcel Proust for the character of the princess of Luxembourg in In Search of Lost Time. At the very least, she went to Geneviève Straus’ ‘Proustian’ salon and, in London (with the complicity of the rani Margaret Brooke) as in Paris, counted numerous friends in the world of letters and arts: Pierre Loti , Guy de Maupassant, Paul Bourget, Frank Harris, Oscar Wilde, Isidore de Lara, Hugues Le Roux, Sarah Bernhardt, etc. The annual exhibition of fine arts created in 1893 and the lyric programming of the salle Garnier during the Belle Époque were a great success thanks to Princess Alice. Albert I of Monaco and herself, for the duration of their married life, have been in fact at the heart of an apparatus of artists, figures from the press, opera or science who set up a cultural lifestyle so important to the reputation of the Principality, between 1880 and 1902.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Armorial of the bishops and archbishops of Monaco

Symbolic representations obeying codes from the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical coats of arms are intended to reflect the personality, origins, or pastoral program of their bearer. Both a legacy of history and contemporary creation, episcopal heraldry sees its use differ according to the context and the character of the prelates. Thus, Charles Theuret, first bishop of Monaco in 1887, made an exuberant use of his arms, while Charles Brand, first archbishop in 1981, did not use them during his short Monegasque episcopate. The spirit of Second Vatican Council dealt a temporary blow to this tradition, but the communication needs of the XXIst century have revived the need for a visual identity. 

The appointment of a new Archbishop of Monaco at the start of 2020 is an opportunity to examine a varied iconography, which had never, until then, aroused any study.

Text in French

Armorial of the bishops and archbishops of Monaco - 2020

Thomas BLANCHY, Thomas FOUILLERON, Claude PASSET, César PENZO
Summary

Symbolic representations obeying codes from the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical coats of arms are intended to reflect the personality, origins, or pastoral program of their bearer. Both a legacy of history and contemporary creation, episcopal heraldry sees its use differ according to the context and the character of the prelates. Thus, Charles Theuret, first bishop of Monaco in 1887, made an exuberant use of his arms, while Charles Brand, first archbishop in 1981, did not use them during his short Monegasque episcopate. The spirit of Second Vatican Council dealt a temporary blow to this tradition, but the communication needs of the XXIst century have revived the need for a visual identity. 

The appointment of a new Archbishop of Monaco at the start of 2020 is an opportunity to examine a varied iconography, which had never, until then, aroused any study.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Beyond the French-Monegasque crisis. Martin Dale’s modernization project for the Principality (1960-1964)

In 1960, prince Rainier III of Monaco named a 28-year-old American, Martin Dale, Privy Councilor for the Economy. Dale will mobilize his economic competences and his networks in the American business community in order to attract the headquarters of major Anglo-Saxon companies and transform the Principality into a financial center of international stature. This project is part of a more general policy of modernization led by the prince since the 1950s. However, the French-Monegasque crisis (1962-1963) will slow down the reform’s greater scheme. Martin Dale will find himself at the heart of the tensions, accused of favoring American interests to the detriment of France. Despite pressure from General de Gaulle, he will be kept in his position. Until his departure in 1964, he continued his mission of promoting Monaco to the United States.

Text in French

Beyond the French-Monegasque crisis. Martin Dale’s modernization project for the Principality (1960-1964) - 2020

Nathalie UBÉDA MOLINES
Summary

In 1960, prince Rainier III of Monaco named a 28-year-old American, Martin Dale, Privy Councilor for the Economy. Dale will mobilize his economic competences and his networks in the American business community in order to attract the headquarters of major Anglo-Saxon companies and transform the Principality into a financial center of international stature. This project is part of a more general policy of modernization led by the prince since the 1950s. However, the French-Monegasque crisis (1962-1963) will slow down the reform’s greater scheme. Martin Dale will find himself at the heart of the tensions, accused of favoring American interests to the detriment of France. Despite pressure from General de Gaulle, he will be kept in his position. Until his departure in 1964, he continued his mission of promoting Monaco to the United States.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - The impossible stopover of Christina of Sweden in Monaco during an epidemic period (1656)

Coming from Rome, where the plague is declared, and going to France, where she is expected like a queen that she is no longer quite, Christina of Sweden would like to make a stopover in Monaco. This wish for a visit from a very prominent figure from the Europe of the time should have flattered the Prince of Monaco, concerned about the recognition of his sovereignty. Worried about the diplomatic consequences of the passage of a woman with a contrasting reputation, who passes to be from the party of Spain, in a fortress where a French garrison is stationed, Honoré II asks the King of France, his protector for fifteen years instructions. Even reassured on the political question, he does not derogate from the health precaution and poses quarantine as a condition of disembarkation. The galleys of the queen only mark a stop off the Rock.

Text in French

The impossible stopover of Christina of Sweden in Monaco during an epidemic period (1656) - 2020

Thomas FOUILLERON
Summary

Coming from Rome, where the plague is declared, and going to France, where she is expected like a queen that she is no longer quite, Christina of Sweden would like to make a stopover in Monaco. This wish for a visit from a very prominent figure from the Europe of the time should have flattered the Prince of Monaco, concerned about the recognition of his sovereignty. Worried about the diplomatic consequences of the passage of a woman with a contrasting reputation, who passes to be from the party of Spain, in a fortress where a French garrison is stationed, Honoré II asks the King of France, his protector for fifteen years instructions. Even reassured on the political question, he does not derogate from the health precaution and poses quarantine as a condition of disembarkation. The galleys of the queen only mark a stop off the Rock.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Chronique bibliographique

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Chronique bibliographique - 2020

Summary