Number 45 - 2021 (SUBSCRIBE TO THE NEXT ISSUE)

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Number 44 - 2020

Summary

Prince Honoré III was born three hundred years ago, in 1720, , and reigned over the Principality for sixty years, from 1733 to 1793. An Art History article pays tribute to him through the study of portraits realized by a rediscovered painter named Marie-Anne Loir, whose work is a part of the Palace collections.

The continued restoration program of the Renaissance frescoes of the palace generated a study and a strong iconographic file on Ferdinand Wagner, a painter from Augsburg recommended by the Count of Württemberg, brother-in-law of Prince Charles III, who restored and created a part of the painted decorations of the Cour d'Honneur of the princely residence in collaboration with two other German painters in the years 1860-1870.

The mythical book of Prince Albert I, whose centenary of death will be celebrated in 2022, La Carrière d’un navigateur, has never been studied. The first edition of the book, which is a collection of autobiographical narratives, published in 1902, was preceded by the publication of articles from 1888.

Princess Alice, second wife of Prince Albert I, got known to a certain social, artistic and literary background, quite representative of European society at the end of the 19th century. In particular, she forged relationships with Oscar Wilde, Pierre Loti, Margaret Brooke, Frank Harris, Isidore de Lara, who are still known today or have fallen into oblivion...

The appointment of a new Archbishop of Monaco at the start of 2020 is an opportunity to examine episcopal heraldry in the Principality from the end of the 19th century. Symbolic representations obeying codes from the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical coats of arms are intended to reflect the personality, origins, or pastoral program of their bearer.

Contemporary history is evocated through a figure from the early reign of Prince Rainier III, Martin Dale. In 1960, this twenty-eight-year-old former American diplomat was appointed private advisor to the sovereign, responsible for attracting investment from across the Atlantic to the Principality and transforming it into a financial center of international stature.

The Franco-Monegasque crisis of 1962-1963 has slowed down the reform momentum. Martin Dale is accused of privileging American interests to the detriment of France. Despite pressure from General de Gaulle, he continued his mission until 1964.

In this time of COVID-19 pandemic, the “document of the year” section takes us back to 1656, when the baroque and brilliant Queen Christina of Sweden, who came from Rome, wanted to make a stopover in Monaco, while the plague was raging in Italy. The sanitary precautions and the political prudence of Prince Honoré II led to the envisaged stage being only a passage at sea, the story of which is kept in the archives of French Foreign Affairs.

 Text in French

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Article from Number 44 - 2020 - The Monaco Family portraits painted by Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783)

In the late 1730s the Parisian artist Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783) painted a series of oil portraits of members of the princely family of Monaco that represent her earliest known original works. Four belong to the collections du Palais princier in Monaco and one to the “Musée d’art et d’histoire” of Saint-Lô in Normandy. Three are of Prince Honoré III and two are of his brother, Marie-Charles-Auguste Grimaldi, comte de Matignon; all but one portray the brothers playing musical instruments.
Thanks to a discovery of a fresh series of letters in the Archives of the Palais princier in Monaco dating from 1737 to 1741 between mademoiselle Loir and her client Jacques de Matignon, duc de Valentinois, and his intendants, Julie Anne Sadie Goode offers in the present article valuable new perspectives on the early career of this under-appreciated XVIIIth century artist, the lives of her subjects, and the artistic, musical and literary milieux that inspired the portraits. In addition, Dr. Sadie Goode draws attention to several other, closely-related portraits also attributed to Loir.

Text in French

The Monaco Family portraits painted by Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783) - 2020

Julie Anne SADIE GOODE
Summary

In the late 1730s the Parisian artist Marie-Anne Loir (1705-1783) painted a series of oil portraits of members of the princely family of Monaco that represent her earliest known original works. Four belong to the collections du Palais princier in Monaco and one to the “Musée d’art et d’histoire” of Saint-Lô in Normandy. Three are of Prince Honoré III and two are of his brother, Marie-Charles-Auguste Grimaldi, comte de Matignon; all but one portray the brothers playing musical instruments.
Thanks to a discovery of a fresh series of letters in the Archives of the Palais princier in Monaco dating from 1737 to 1741 between mademoiselle Loir and her client Jacques de Matignon, duc de Valentinois, and his intendants, Julie Anne Sadie Goode offers in the present article valuable new perspectives on the early career of this under-appreciated XVIIIth century artist, the lives of her subjects, and the artistic, musical and literary milieux that inspired the portraits. In addition, Dr. Sadie Goode draws attention to several other, closely-related portraits also attributed to Loir.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Restoration, restitution and creation. The painter Ferdinand Wagner and the wall decorations of the courtyard at the palace of Monaco at the end of...

According to the testimony of Millin, naturalist who came to Monaco 1813, the courtyard’s frescoes were very damaged and “almost entirely erased”. Indeed, when Charles III ascended the throne in the middle of the 19th century, these paintings created in the mid-16th century, needed an urgent restoration. That is the reason why he undertook to restore his residence and turn it back to the mirror of sovereignty.
In 1864, through his brother-in-law the count of Württemberg, the prince appealed to an Augsburg history painter and representative of the Nazarene current, Ferdinand Wagner. The latter got down to the task until 1868 and has been succeeded by two compatriots, Fröschle and then Deschler who worked until 1874. After this time, the four facades of the courtyard went metamorphosed.
Those painters were undoubtedly guided by the remains but also had to be creative to restore a continuous and coherent decoration.

Text in French

Restoration, restitution and creation. The painter Ferdinand Wagner and the wall decorations of the courtyard at the palace of Monaco at the end of the 19th century - 2020

Bernt VON HAGEN
Summary

According to the testimony of Millin, naturalist who came to Monaco 1813, the courtyard’s frescoes were very damaged and “almost entirely erased”. Indeed, when Charles III ascended the throne in the middle of the 19th century, these paintings created in the mid-16th century, needed an urgent restoration. That is the reason why he undertook to restore his residence and turn it back to the mirror of sovereignty.
In 1864, through his brother-in-law the count of Württemberg, the prince appealed to an Augsburg history painter and representative of the Nazarene current, Ferdinand Wagner. The latter got down to the task until 1868 and has been succeeded by two compatriots, Fröschle and then Deschler who worked until 1874. After this time, the four facades of the courtyard went metamorphosed.
Those painters were undoubtedly guided by the remains but also had to be creative to restore a continuous and coherent decoration.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - From anchor to feather, from article to book. Albert I of Monaco and the genesis of La Carrière d’un navigateur

When he was a teenager, Albert, hereditary Prince of Monaco, adopted two principles: to be useful and to leave a mark of his activities. A family and friendly correspondence, also active and appreciated by the recipients, led him to tell about the outstanding episodes of his maritime journey.
In 1888 and 1889, he published two articles in the prestigious Revue des deux mondes. His role as a sovereign has forced him to put aside this writing activity for six years. Then, Albert I of Monaco published three texts in the Nouvelle Revue - “À la chasse”, “La mort d’un cachalot”, “L’âme du marin” – in the Revue de Paris, the Grande Revue, and finally in the Revue scientifique.
Nevertheless, he wished to bring together all these articles in a book which, from the second publication, were given a caption: “La carrière d’un navigateur”.

Text in French

From anchor to feather, from article to book. Albert I of Monaco and the genesis of La Carrière d’un navigateur - 2020

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
Summary

When he was a teenager, Albert, hereditary Prince of Monaco, adopted two principles: to be useful and to leave a mark of his activities. A family and friendly correspondence, also active and appreciated by the recipients, led him to tell about the outstanding episodes of his maritime journey.
In 1888 and 1889, he published two articles in the prestigious Revue des deux mondes. His role as a sovereign has forced him to put aside this writing activity for six years. Then, Albert I of Monaco published three texts in the Nouvelle Revue - “À la chasse”, “La mort d’un cachalot”, “L’âme du marin” – in the Revue de Paris, the Grande Revue, and finally in the Revue scientifique.
Nevertheless, he wished to bring together all these articles in a book which, from the second publication, were given a caption: “La carrière d’un navigateur”.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - From Monaco to Borneo, via London and Paris. Literary and artistic friendships around princess Alice and prince Albert I of Monaco

University exegesis means that Princess Alice of Monaco inspired Marcel Proust for the character of the princess of Luxembourg in In Search of Lost Time. At the very least, she went to Geneviève Straus’ ‘Proustian’ salon and, in London (with the complicity of the rani Margaret Brooke) as in Paris, counted numerous friends in the world of letters and arts: Pierre Loti , Guy de Maupassant, Paul Bourget, Frank Harris, Oscar Wilde, Isidore de Lara, Hugues Le Roux, Sarah Bernhardt, etc. The annual exhibition of fine arts created in 1893 and the lyric programming of the salle Garnier during the Belle Époque were a great success thanks to Princess Alice. Albert I of Monaco and herself, for the duration of their married life, have been in fact at the heart of an apparatus of artists, figures from the press, opera or science who set up a cultural lifestyle so important to the reputation of the Principality, between 1880 and 1902.

Text in French

From Monaco to Borneo, via London and Paris. Literary and artistic friendships around princess Alice and prince Albert I of Monaco - 2020

Alain QUELLA-VILLÉGER
Summary

University exegesis means that Princess Alice of Monaco inspired Marcel Proust for the character of the princess of Luxembourg in In Search of Lost Time. At the very least, she went to Geneviève Straus’ ‘Proustian’ salon and, in London (with the complicity of the rani Margaret Brooke) as in Paris, counted numerous friends in the world of letters and arts: Pierre Loti , Guy de Maupassant, Paul Bourget, Frank Harris, Oscar Wilde, Isidore de Lara, Hugues Le Roux, Sarah Bernhardt, etc. The annual exhibition of fine arts created in 1893 and the lyric programming of the salle Garnier during the Belle Époque were a great success thanks to Princess Alice. Albert I of Monaco and herself, for the duration of their married life, have been in fact at the heart of an apparatus of artists, figures from the press, opera or science who set up a cultural lifestyle so important to the reputation of the Principality, between 1880 and 1902.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Armorial of the bishops and archbishops of Monaco

Symbolic representations obeying codes from the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical coats of arms are intended to reflect the personality, origins, or pastoral program of their bearer. Both a legacy of history and contemporary creation, episcopal heraldry sees its use differ according to the context and the character of the prelates. Thus, Charles Theuret, first bishop of Monaco in 1887, made an exuberant use of his arms, while Charles Brand, first archbishop in 1981, did not use them during his short Monegasque episcopate. The spirit of Second Vatican Council dealt a temporary blow to this tradition, but the communication needs of the XXIst century have revived the need for a visual identity. 

The appointment of a new Archbishop of Monaco at the start of 2020 is an opportunity to examine a varied iconography, which had never, until then, aroused any study.

Text in French

Armorial of the bishops and archbishops of Monaco - 2020

Thomas BLANCHY, Thomas FOUILLERON, Claude PASSET, César PENZO
Summary

Symbolic representations obeying codes from the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical coats of arms are intended to reflect the personality, origins, or pastoral program of their bearer. Both a legacy of history and contemporary creation, episcopal heraldry sees its use differ according to the context and the character of the prelates. Thus, Charles Theuret, first bishop of Monaco in 1887, made an exuberant use of his arms, while Charles Brand, first archbishop in 1981, did not use them during his short Monegasque episcopate. The spirit of Second Vatican Council dealt a temporary blow to this tradition, but the communication needs of the XXIst century have revived the need for a visual identity. 

The appointment of a new Archbishop of Monaco at the start of 2020 is an opportunity to examine a varied iconography, which had never, until then, aroused any study.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Beyond the French-Monegasque crisis. Martin Dale’s modernization project for the Principality (1960-1964)

In 1960, prince Rainier III of Monaco named a 28-year-old American, Martin Dale, Privy Councilor for the Economy. Dale will mobilize his economic competences and his networks in the American business community in order to attract the headquarters of major Anglo-Saxon companies and transform the Principality into a financial center of international stature. This project is part of a more general policy of modernization led by the prince since the 1950s. However, the French-Monegasque crisis (1962-1963) will slow down the reform’s greater scheme. Martin Dale will find himself at the heart of the tensions, accused of favoring American interests to the detriment of France. Despite pressure from General de Gaulle, he will be kept in his position. Until his departure in 1964, he continued his mission of promoting Monaco to the United States.

Text in French

Beyond the French-Monegasque crisis. Martin Dale’s modernization project for the Principality (1960-1964) - 2020

Nathalie UBÉDA MOLINES
Summary

In 1960, prince Rainier III of Monaco named a 28-year-old American, Martin Dale, Privy Councilor for the Economy. Dale will mobilize his economic competences and his networks in the American business community in order to attract the headquarters of major Anglo-Saxon companies and transform the Principality into a financial center of international stature. This project is part of a more general policy of modernization led by the prince since the 1950s. However, the French-Monegasque crisis (1962-1963) will slow down the reform’s greater scheme. Martin Dale will find himself at the heart of the tensions, accused of favoring American interests to the detriment of France. Despite pressure from General de Gaulle, he will be kept in his position. Until his departure in 1964, he continued his mission of promoting Monaco to the United States.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - The impossible stopover of Christina of Sweden in Monaco during an epidemic period (1656)

Coming from Rome, where the plague is declared, and going to France, where she is expected like a queen that she is no longer quite, Christina of Sweden would like to make a stopover in Monaco. This wish for a visit from a very prominent figure from the Europe of the time should have flattered the Prince of Monaco, concerned about the recognition of his sovereignty. Worried about the diplomatic consequences of the passage of a woman with a contrasting reputation, who passes to be from the party of Spain, in a fortress where a French garrison is stationed, Honoré II asks the King of France, his protector for fifteen years instructions. Even reassured on the political question, he does not derogate from the health precaution and poses quarantine as a condition of disembarkation. The galleys of the queen only mark a stop off the Rock.

Text in French

The impossible stopover of Christina of Sweden in Monaco during an epidemic period (1656) - 2020

Thomas FOUILLERON
Summary

Coming from Rome, where the plague is declared, and going to France, where she is expected like a queen that she is no longer quite, Christina of Sweden would like to make a stopover in Monaco. This wish for a visit from a very prominent figure from the Europe of the time should have flattered the Prince of Monaco, concerned about the recognition of his sovereignty. Worried about the diplomatic consequences of the passage of a woman with a contrasting reputation, who passes to be from the party of Spain, in a fortress where a French garrison is stationed, Honoré II asks the King of France, his protector for fifteen years instructions. Even reassured on the political question, he does not derogate from the health precaution and poses quarantine as a condition of disembarkation. The galleys of the queen only mark a stop off the Rock.

Text in French

Article from Number 44 - 2020 - Chronique bibliographique

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Chronique bibliographique - 2020

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Number 43 - 2019

Summary

The summer 2019 exhibition, presented in the Great Apartments of the Palace of Monaco and dedicated to the first meeting of the American actress Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier III chick took place on May 6, 1955, is transposed in a notebook of fifty pages and abundantly illustrated. This exhibition has been designed by the Archives and Library service of the Princely Palace and the audiovisual institute of Monaco.

The medieval era is evoked through a specific episode in the History of Monaco: the sale and purchase of the Grimaldi lordship to the dolphin of France, in the context of the expansionist actions of tis big neighbors: Genoa, Savoy and Milan.

As an Art-lover Prince, Honoré II greatly built the collections of the Palace in the seventeenth century. As part of the study program about former princely art collections, which started several years ago, the Prince’s liking for painting is analyzed through his personal correspondence.

Another study about art History is dedicated to the Fabergé egg which joined the Princely collections in 1974. This masterpiece of goldsmithing and watchmaking found its place in the official chronology of imperial and pendulum eggs.

Contemporary history is in the spotlight with several subjects: the history of the cemetery of Monaco, from its origin in 1868 to the present day, in the context of the evolution of mentalities and mortuary customs; the role of Prince Albert I in scientific relations between research centers on the coast and the "seabeds" of Villefranche and Monaco at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century; the life of Robert W. Service, a Scottish writer famous in the English-speaking world and author of the novel The Poisoned Paradise. A Romance of Monte-Carlo, published in 1922, which depicts a fantasized portrait of Monaco in the “Roaring Twenties”; as Prince’s Rainier III advisor in 1965-1967, Claude de Kémoularia played an important role in the outcome of the crisis between the Monegasque State and Aristotle Onassis; Relying on the advisor's personal archives, an article reviews this episode and decodes the government machineries of the principality in the 1960s.

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Times and setbacks of the foreign policy of John Grimaldi the First. 1451: the future Louis XI buys Monaco for 12 000 gold ecus

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - Times and setbacks of the foreign policy of John Grimaldi the First. 1451: the future Louis XI buys Monaco for 12 000 gold ecus

John Grimaldi the First, lord of Monaco from 1427 to 1454, had to fight during all these years against the aims of his big neighbours – namely the Republic of Genoa, the duchies of Savoy and Milan –, eager to seize Monaco, strategic stronghold between Provence and Italy. Despite the determination he made to preserve the independence of his Rock of Monaco, John ended up selling, in the spring of 1451, his seigneury to Dauphin Louis, future king of France Louis XI, retaining only the government of the place in the name of the Dauphin. Thus, totally ignored, the delphinal banner waved for three years on the towers of the two castles of Monaco, until the death of John Grimaldi and the beginning of the reign of his son Catalan. Finally the place remained in the hands of the Grimaldi, the Dauphin having not executed the clauses of the bill of sale and having abandoned his plans of foreign Italian policy.

(full text in French)

Times and setbacks of the foreign policy of John Grimaldi the First. 1451: the future Louis XI buys Monaco for 12 000 gold ecus - 2019

Inès IGIER-PASSET
Summary

Times and setbacks of the foreign policy of John Grimaldi the First:

1451, the future Louis XI buys Monaco for 12 000 gold ecus

John Grimaldi the First, lord of Monaco from 1427 to 1454, had to fight during all these years against the aims

of his big neighbours – namely the Republic of Genoa, the duchies of Savoy and Milan –, eager to seize Monaco, strategic stronghold between Provence and Italy. Despite the determination he made to preserve the independence of his Rock of Monaco, John ended up selling, in the spring of 1451, his seigneury to Dauphin Louis, future king of France Louis XI, retaining only the government of the place in the name of the Dauphin. Thus, totally ignored, the delphinal banner waved for three years on the towers of the two castles of Monaco, until the death of John Grimaldi and the beginning of the reign of his son Catalan. Finally the place remained in the hands of the Grimaldi, the Dauphin having not executed the clauses of the bill of sale and having abandoned his plans of foreign Italian policy.

Paintings of the year 1630. The pictorial tastes of prince Honoré II of Monaco through his correspondence

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - Paintings of the year 1630. The pictorial tastes of prince Honoré II of Monaco through his correspondence

A volume housed in the Archives of the Principality of Monaco contains drafts of letters written in 1630 by Honoré II to various individuals, revealing his lively collecting activity, especially as regards landscape and still-life paintings, mostly Flemish. His privileged correspondents were Jan Roos and Cornelis de Wael, who were then active in Genoa, and from whom he commissioned numerous paintings, also on the occasion of their visits to Monaco in November 1629 (de Wael) and February-March 1630 (Roos). In addition the letters reveal the Prince’s appreciation for two of the major painters in Genoa, Domenico Fiasella and Luciano Borzone, who were repeatedly asked to work for him. His interests spread beyond Liguria, reaching artists in Milan, Rome, Naples, Florence, Flanders and Spain. In Madrid he commissioned the portraits of the Spanish Royals; from Rome he received the portrait of Cardinal Teodoro Trivulzio, his brother-in-law, as well as various paintings by the Neapolitan Domenico Viola, who was then in the circle of the Bamboccianti. His writing reveals a very defined taste, expressed through clear judgements on the quality of paintings and precise requests to artists regarding subject, material and format.

(full text in French)

Paintings of the year 1630. The pictorial tastes of prince Honoré II of Monaco through his correspondence - 2019

Tiziana ZENNARO
Summary

A volume housed in the Archives of the Principality of Monaco contains drafts of letters written in 1630 by Honoré II to various individuals, revealing his lively collecting activity, especially as regards landscape and still-life paintings, mostly Flemish. His privileged correspondents were Jan Roos and Cornelis de Wael, who were then active in Genoa, and from whom he commissioned numerous paintings, also on the occasion of their visits to Monaco in November 1629 (de Wael) and February-March 1630 (Roos). In addition the letters reveal the Prince’s appreciation for two of the major painters in Genoa, Domenico Fiasella and Luciano Borzone, who were repeatedly asked to work for him. His interests spread beyond Liguria, reaching artists in Milan, Rome, Naples, Florence, Flanders and Spain. In Madrid he commissioned the portraits of the Spanish Royals; from Rome he received the portrait of Cardinal Teodoro Trivulzio, his brother-in-law, as well as various paintings by the Neapolitan Domenico Viola, who was then in the circle of the Bamboccianti. His writing reveals a very defined taste, expressed through clear judgements on the quality of paintings and precise requests to artists regarding subject, material and format.

The imperial egg belonging to the princely palace of Monaco collections

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - The imperial egg belonging to the princely palace of Monaco collections

The Monaco Egg, a masterpiece made by the House of Fabergé, has an undeniable imperial provenance.

Previously dated 1887, it was presented by Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra to Empress Maria Feodorovna in honor of the 1895 Easter festivities, the first celebration of its kind since Emperor Alexander III’s death in the Fall of 1894. This egg initiated the tradition of a series of eggs offered by Nicholas II to his mother. With the exception of the third imperial egg, whose surprise included a watch that transformed the egg into a clock, the Monaco egg represents the first clock egg in the imperial series. Many of the clock eggs were presented to Empress Maria who enjoyed collecting elaborate mechanisms.

(full text in French)

The imperial egg belonging to the princely palace of Monaco collections - 2019

Wilfried ZEISLER
Summary

The imperial egg belonging to the princely palace of Monaco collections

The Monaco Egg, a masterpiece made by the House of Fabergé, has an undeniable imperial provenance.

Previously dated 1887, it was presented by Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra to Empress Maria Feodorovna in honor of the 1895 Easter festivities, the first celebration of its kind since Emperor Alexander III’s death in the Fall of 1894. This egg initiated the tradition of a series of eggs offered by Nicholas II to his mother. With the exception of the third imperial egg, whose surprise included a watch that transformed the egg into a clock, the Monaco egg represents the first clock egg in the imperial series. Many of the clock eggs were presented to Empress Maria who enjoyed collecting elaborate mechanisms.

Death in Monaco after the creation of Monte-Carlo. The cemetery of the Salines

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - Death in Monaco after the creation of Monte-Carlo. The cemetery of the Salines

Created in 1868 in the context of urban development linked to the growth of Monte-Carlo, the cemetery of Salines was expected to face the new needs induced by the increase of the population of the Principality in the second half of the nineteenth century. It also had to meet the new sanitary requirements and replace the old Monegasque small graveyards, including that of the Saint-Nicolas church, the most important. Having become the only cemetery in Monaco, it experienced the same problems of space as the Principality and sometimes had to use the same strategies to develop. But, beyond these questions of urbanism, this cemetery is, like other necropolis of the French or Italian Riviera, an interesting example illustrating the funerary Mediterranean culture.

(full text in French)

Death in Monaco after the creation of Monte-Carlo. The cemetery of the Salines - 2019

Béatrice BLANCHY
Summary

Death in Monaco after the creation of Monte-Carlo: the cemetery of the Salines

Created in 1868 in the context of urban development linked to the growth of Monte-Carlo, the cemetery of Salines was expected to face the new needs induced by the increase of the population of the Principality in the second half of the nineteenth century. It also had to meet the new sanitary requirements and replace the old Monegasque small graveyards, including that of the Saint-Nicolas church, the most important. Having become the only cemetery in Monaco, it experienced the same problems of space as the Principality and sometimes had to use the same strategies to develop. But, beyond these questions of urbanism, this cemetery is, like other necropolis of the French or Italian Riviera, an interesting example illustrating the funerary Mediterranean culture.

Two learned look-out posts over the Mediterranean Sea. Villefranche-sur-Mer and Monaco (1880-1914)

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - Two learned look-out posts over the Mediterranean Sea. Villefranche-sur-Mer and Monaco (1880-1914)

As early as 1876, Carl Vogt proposed for a research centre to be established in Villefranche-sur-Mer, taking into account the peculiarities of the fauna and topography in that area. During the 1880s, several attempts were made, but difficulties arose between the protagonists: the French Jules Barrois, the Swiss Hermann Fol and the Russian Alexis Korotneff. When Prince Albert I of Monaco spent several months in his Principality in 1890, all these persons tried to obtain his help.

The main wish of the Prince was to resume his oceanographic work. Over about fifteen days, he went to sea on board Fol’s well-equipped yacht, Amphiaster. So he became acquainted with the use of a steamer. A study was undertaken for the apparatus, particularly the traps and closing nets devised and/or improved by him and those used by Fol; the methods for their use and the results obtained were thoroughly compared. Before and after the creation of the Oceanographic Museum, relations between the Prince and the oceanographers in Villefranche-sur-Mer were restricted to neighbourly terms, exchanges of animals and information. A program for common researches was never concluded.

(full text in French)

Two learned look-out posts over the Mediterranean Sea. Villefranche-sur-Mer and Monaco (1880-1914) - 2019

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
Summary

Two learned look-out posts over the Mediterranean Sea. Villefranche-sur-Mer and Monaco (1880-1914)

As early as 1876, Carl Vogt proposed for a research centre to be established in Villefranche-sur-Mer, taking

into account the peculiarities of the fauna and topography in that area. During the 1880s, several attempts were made, but difficulties arose between the protagonists: the French Jules Barrois, the Swiss Hermann Fol and the Russian Alexis Korotneff. When Prince Albert I of Monaco spent several months in his Principality in 1890, all these persons tried to obtain his help.

The main wish of the Prince was to resume his oceanographic work. Over about fifteen days, he went to sea

on board Fol’s well-equipped yacht, Amphiaster. So he became acquainted with the use of a steamer. A study was undertaken for the apparatus, particularly the traps and closing nets devised and/or improved by him and those used by Fol; the methods for their use and the results obtained were thoroughly compared. Before and after the creation of the Oceanographic Museum, relations between the Prince and the oceanographers in Villefranche-sur-Mer were restricted to neighbourly terms, exchanges of animals and information. A program for common researches was never concluded.

The Poisoned Paradise. A Romance of Monte-Carlo. Robert William Service, a scottish writer in Monaco

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - The Poisoned Paradise. A Romance of Monte-Carlo. Robert William Service, a scottish writer in Monaco

The principality of Monaco takes a significant part in the life and work of the Scottish writer Robert W. Service (1874–1958). After having been world widely celebrated for his Canadian High North writings and then regarding his First World War poems on the Somme front, he dwelt at Monaco which inspires him The Poisoned Paradise. A Romance of Monte-Carlo published in 1922. This book alongside with its film adaptation took advantage of the hugely mainstream adventure novel trend. Besides of this literary success, the novel is giving an extremely relevant account of Monaco during the Roaring Twenties.

After the Second World War, Robert W. Service settles definitively with his family at Monaco where he finds, as he explained it many times, all the propitious components allowing his inspiration to flourish. Service was regularly celebrated by the local and Anglo-Saxon media; when in 1956, the Royal Wedding happened to be another highlight owing to his special moments with Grace Kelly and her parents.

(full text in French)

The Poisoned Paradise. A Romance of Monte-Carlo. Robert William Service, a scottish writer in Monaco - 2019

Charlotte SERVICE-LONGEPE / Yves GIRAUDON
Summary

The Poisoned Paradise. A Romance of Monte-Carlo

Robert William Service, a scottish writer in Monaco

The principality of Monaco takes a significant part in the life and work of the Scottish writer Robert W. Service (1874–1958). After having been world widely celebrated for his Canadian High North writings and then regarding his First World War poems on the Somme front, he dwelt at Monaco which inspires him The Poisoned Paradise. A Romance of Monte-Carlo published in 1922. This book alongside with its film adaptation took advantage of the hugely mainstream adventure novel trend. Besides of this literary success, the novel is giving an extremely relevant account of Monaco during the Roaring Twenties.

After the Second World War, Robert W. Service settles definitively with his family at Monaco where he finds, as he explained it many times, all the propitious components allowing his inspiration to flourish. Service was regularly celebrated by the local and Anglo-Saxon media; when in 1956, the Royal Wedding happened to be another highlight owing to his special moments with Grace Kelly and her parents.

To counsel the prince. Claude de Kémoularia in the service of Rainier III (1965-1967)

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - To counsel the prince. Claude de Kémoularia in the service of Rainier III (1965-1967)

Claude de Kemoularia’s mission in the service of Prince Rainier III of Monaco from 1965 to 1967 coincided with the climax and the outcome of the crisis between the Prince of Monaco and Aristotle Onassis. Kemoularia’s personal archives allow to highlight the details of the negotiations that led to the departure of Onassis from the Société des Bains de mer (S.B.M). Kémoularia’s direct correspondence with Rainier III updates the principality’s methods of government a few years after the establishment of the Monegasque Constitution of 1962. It also shows the importance for Monaco of French support, particularly in banking circles face Onassis.

(full text in French)

To counsel the prince. Claude de Kémoularia in the service of Rainier III (1965-1967) - 2019

Jean-Rémy BEZIAS
Summary

To counsel the prince: Claude de Kémoularia in the service of Rainier III (1965-1967)

Claude de Kemoularia’s mission in the service of Prince Rainier III of Monaco from 1965 to 1967 coincided with the climax and the outcome of the crisis between the Prince of Monaco and Aristotle Onassis. Kemoularia’s personal archives allow to highlight the details of the negotiations that led to the departure of Onassis from the Société des Bains de mer (S.B.M). Kémoularia’s direct correspondence with Rainier III updates the principality’s methods of government a few years after the establishment of the Monegasque Constitution of 1962. It also shows the importance for Monaco of French support, particularly in banking circles face Onassis.

Monaco, 6 May 1955. The Story of a Meeting

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - Monaco, 6 May 1955. The Story of a Meeting

Designed as a photographic tour through the Palace State rooms, this exhibition, presented in the State rooms in the Palace of Monaco, from 14 Mai to 15 October 2019, organized by the Palace of Monaco Archive and the Audiovisual Institute of Monaco, follows in Grace Kelly’s footsteps in the very places where she met Prince Rainier, around the dress she wore that day, along with personal items, letters, testimonials, newspaper clips and film excerpts. All this documentation shows how the reportage, which went virtually unnoticed at the time, became legend, with its memories and anecdotes.

(full text in French)

Monaco, 6 May 1955. The Story of a Meeting - 2019

Thomas FOUILLERON / Vincent VATRICAN
Summary

Designed as a photographic tour through the Palace State rooms, this exhibition, presented in the State rooms in the Palace of Monaco, from 14 Mai to 15 October 2019, organized by the Palace of Monaco Archive and the Audiovisual Institute of Monaco, follows in Grace Kelly’s footsteps in the very places where she met Prince Rainier, around the dress she wore that day, along with personal items, letters, testimonials, newspaper clips and film excerpts. All this documentation shows how the reportage, which went virtually unnoticed at the time, became legend, with its memories and anecdotes.

Chronique bibliographique

Article from Number 43 - 2019 - Chronique bibliographique

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Number 42 - 2018

Summary

The two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the birth of the Monegasque sculptor François-Joseph Bosio (1768-1845), eminent representative of neoclassicism in the early nineteenth century, offers the opportunity of two studies: a monograph of an emblematic work, unique and multiple, the Henry IV child, by a curator of the Louvre; a historiographical retrospective on the representation and the monegasque memory of the artist, erected as a national hero. The tercentenary of the foundation of the city of New Orleans gives the opportunity to a specialist of French emigration in the United States to be interested in the ascendants of Alice Heine, "first American princess of Monaco", second wife of Prince Albert I, whose Alsatian maternal family joined Louisiana in the early nineteenth century, after passing through Santo Domingo and Cuba. The three hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the birth of the composer Couperin reminds us that he had found a muse in Monaco, in the person of a daughter of Prince Antoine I, to whom he dedicates a harpsichord piece. Granddaughter of Lucien Bonaparte, Marie Rattazzi (1831-1902) was a prominent woman of letters and a salonnière in vogue at the end of the 19th century. She frequented Monaco and its princes, wanting to be the muse. To evoke the relation to the sea of ​​Albert I may seem to belong to the commonplace, repeated to envy. The reflection still remained to be led, from three angles, all experienced by the prince during his career as a navigator: at once shipwrecked, rescuer and protector of the maritime environment. In 2017, the "Explorations de Monaco" were launched to better "love, know and protect" the oceans, in the wake of Prince Albert I's expeditions. Madeira was the first stage and was the site of an exhibition dedicated to the discovery of the archipelago, between 1879 and 1912, by the "prince scientist". A thematic file reports on the event. The current restoration campaign of the palace's painted decorations has brought to light, not only a set of new Renaissance frescoes in the Grand Apartments, but also an unpublished archive, which is the "document of the year", and which gives, for the first time and irrefutably, a name, probably among others, for the realization of the wall paintings of the sixteenth century.

Number 41 - 2017

Summary

The Monegasque commemoration of this year have strongly influenced the topics of this issue. Indeed, two hundred years ago, in 1817, the Stupinigi agreements linked Monaco to the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. From the 1848 secession to the official end of the Sardinian protectorate of the Principality in 1860, many vicissitudes have been heard. In 1917, a century ago, the battle of the “Chemin des Dames” gave the opportunity to the future Louis II to shine, as he was a volunteer within the French army. A notebook transposes the exhibition dedicated to the prince’s route during the Great War and has been shown to HSH the Prince Albert II in spring of 2017. Armand Lunel died fourty years ago, in 1977. Philosopher and writer less recognized today than he was previously, he taught over a lifetime in Monaco and was granted the Théophraste-Renaudot prize. Further to the great exhibition of this year in the Nouveau Musée national de Monaco about Hercule Florence, curious inventor of the 19th century, the first pages of his autobiography dedicated to his youth spent in Monaco have been published, annotated and commented. As part of the curriculum on the ancient princes’ art collections, a point about Rubens is made in this issue. An iconic and illuminated document from the Archives of the Palace is here highlighted : Hercule I’s doctorate diploma in canon and civil law, dated 1584. The former dynasty fiefs are presented through an architectural monograph of the castle of Torigni located in Normandy and which was one of the Princes’s residence in the 18th century. The modern historical period is also mentioned thanks to various relationships maintained by Monaco and Venice in the 17th and 18th centuries. To finish with, in order to satisfy the collectors, a study is dedicated to a topic which may look anecdotal : the Monegasque matchboxes from the 19th to nowadays, the evolution of which reflects another image of the Principality.

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A princely château in Normandy. Torigni, from Robert of Gloucester to the Grimaldis

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - A princely château in Normandy. Torigni, from Robert of Gloucester to the Grimaldis

Now largely destroyed, the château of Torigni used to be one of the greatest and noblest houses in Normandy, and was in the 18th century one of the principal residences of the princes of Monaco. Numerous archival documents, mainly preserved in the Palace Archives, allow to trace its history: at first a fortified castle built for an illegitimate son of King Henry Beauclerc of England, it was reconstructed in the mid-14th century before becoming in the 16th century a much more sumptuous house. Jacques II de Matignon built a large château whose fronts, designed by a member of the Du Cerceau family, were covered with stone bosses. His descendants had this great building improved by new interior decorations, the most important being the cycle of paintings ordered in 1651 from Claude Vignon. A large park was created near the château, and a great cascade was built in the early 18th century. However, these landscaping were destroyed after the French Revolution, which lead to the loss of the majority of this great princely residence. (full text in French)

A princely château in Normandy. Torigni, from Robert of Gloucester to the Grimaldis - 2017

Étienne FAISANT
Summary
In utroque jure. The diploma of doctorate obtained by Hercule Grimaldi in 1584 at the University of Pavia. Translation and comments

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - In utroque jure. The diploma of doctorate obtained by Hercule Grimaldi in 1584 at the University of Pavia. Translation and comments

The diploma of doctorate in canon and civil law, obtained by Hercule Grimaldi in 1584 at the University of Pavia, is translated here from latin and commented. In addition to its outstanding aesthetic and technical quality, this charter contains a lot of informations about the doctorate in law in the 16th century, its requirements and procedures, at that special time of Europe’s history, during the Counter-Reformation. Moreover, the doctorate obtained by Hercule demonstrates real Grimaldi’s interest in University, which can play an important role not only in instructing monarchs, but also in promoting the symbolic image of the dynasty, by honouring its remarkable figures. (full text in French)

In utroque jure. The diploma of doctorate obtained by Hercule Grimaldi in 1584 at the University of Pavia. Translation and comments - 2017

Yves GIRAUDON
Summary
The lion and the dove. Venice and Monaco at the XVII and XVIII centuries

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - The lion and the dove. Venice and Monaco at the XVII and XVIII centuries

At first sight, Principality and Serenissima were, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, two independent States that geography, history, politic, and economic separated more than they gathered. Even so, Antoine I’s « Grand Tour » is a problem; how can we explain his long presence in the city of the Doges (nearly one month), unlike he stayed only a few days in the other towns he crossed? Perhaps because his father, Louis I, had ties that were transcribed in many ways. Which ones and how? Did his successors continue them? Quite always, everything has to do with this prince. (full text in French)

The lion and the dove. Venice and Monaco at the XVII and XVIII centuries - 2017

Olivia ANTONI
Summary
Rubens in the princes of Monaco collections (17th-18th centuries)

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Rubens in the princes of Monaco collections (17th-18th centuries)

The great charm of Peter Paul Rubens, the painter of the Seventeenth-century European courts, could not be grabbed by the Grimaldi House: Honoré II inventories include some paintings attributed to him, while Antoine I requested the Monegasque painter Jean-Augustin Vento for some copies of his celebrated Maria de Medici Cycle. Anyway his most passionate admirer was Jacques I: among the paintings attributed to the Flemish master in his possession, we can find the so-called Le fils de Paul Rubens, a beautiful portrait so far preserved. The painting, currently at the Städel Museum in Frankfurt, is now attributed to Cornelis de Vos, a great Flemish portraitist and also Rubens collaborator. It is identified as the portrait of his daughter Susanna. (full text in French)

Rubens in the princes of Monaco collections (17th-18th centuries) - 2017

Francesca BOTTACIN
Summary
Ancestry and monegasque youth in Monaco. An inquisitive man at the XIX century. Hercule Florence (1804-1879)

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Ancestry and monegasque youth in Monaco. An inquisitive man at the XIX century. Hercule Florence (1804-1879)

Not surprisingly, Hercule Florence’s personality owes its debt to his childhood and parenthood. He wrote some pages about this time in Nice and Monaco, which are here published, introduced by our own researches helping to know better these 1793-1823 years around the young inventor and his parents. We tried here to enhance the documents existing in the Archives of Monaco, of Nice and the Alpes-Maritimes, sometimes supporting, sometimes correcting Hercule Florence’s memories. (full text in French)

Ancestry and monegasque youth in Monaco. An inquisitive man at the XIX century. Hercule Florence (1804-1879) - 2017

Thierry THOMAS
Summary
The Stupinigi Treaties of 1817 and the Franco-Sardinian-Monegasque Territorial : Dispute between 1848 and 1860

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - The Stupinigi Treaties of 1817 and the Franco-Sardinian-Monegasque Territorial : Dispute between 1848 and 1860

In 1817, the plenipotentiaries of the prince of Monaco and of the king of Sardinia signed in Turin the two treaties which established and regulated the protectorate of Sardinia on the principality of Monaco which lasted until 1860 when the ancient Savoy county of Nice and the villes libres of Menton and Roquebrune were annexed to France. The treaties were ratified by king Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia on 8 and 11 november 1817 in the royal hunting castle of Stupinigi, close to Turin. Today, almost two centuries after the treaties of Stupinigi, we want to commemorate the most significant events that marked this period so interesting from a historical and diplomatic profile. This essay examines in detail some aspects of the Franco-Sardinian-Monegasque diplomatic and territorial controversy under the Stupinigi treaties. (full text in French)

The Stupinigi Treaties of 1817 and the Franco-Sardinian-Monegasque Territorial : Dispute between 1848 and 1860 - 2017

Pier Maria STABILE
Summary
Armand Lunel à Monaco. Strange ways, between literature, history and pilosophy

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Armand Lunel à Monaco. Strange ways, between literature, history and pilosophy

The award-winning writer and philosophy teacher, Armand Lunel (1892-1977) received the Théophraste-Renaudot first prize in 1926 and marked several generations of pupils through his teaching from 1920 to 1953 at the High School in Monaco (Lycée de Monaco). Throughout his life he constantly declared his unceasing esteem for the Prince and his family as well as for the inhabitants of a country that he loved as much as the figures from his own Provençal childhood. Although his works reveal little of his deep attachment to Monaco, his commitment to the activities of various associations and institutions in his capacity as a prominent literary figure made him a true cultural ambassador for Monaco in France and in the world. Finally, the course of Lunel’s life and career is significantly representative of the hardships faced by a Jewish civil servant during World War II, dismissed by Vichy, protected by the Princely family and reinstated at the Liberation by the Monegasque government. (full text in French)

Armand Lunel à Monaco. Strange ways, between literature, history and pilosophy - 2017

Stéphane LAMOTTE
Summary
The monegasque matches. Notes about Phillumeny (XIX-XXI century)

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - The monegasque matches. Notes about Phillumeny (XIX-XXI century)

In early 1892, the state took over the distribution of matches in Monaco. After half a century of French boxes surcharged « monaco », the first illustrated boxes and books appeared around 1950. Their initial “woodcut” style was later replaced by beautiful photographic illustrations on sold boxes and by advertisements, especially for cigarettes and other products of the Régie monégasque, mainly on boxes for free distribution. From a technical point of view, the wooden boxes disappear to the benefit of cardboard boxes, and the books simply glued took the place of the old tacked ones. (full text in French)

The monegasque matches. Notes about Phillumeny (XIX-XXI century) - 2017

Wolfgang MAIER
Summary
Exposition - Un prince engagé volontaire - Louis II de Monaco, soldat de la Grande Guerre

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Exposition - Un prince engagé volontaire - Louis II de Monaco, soldat de la Grande Guerre

Exposition - Un prince engagé volontaire - Louis II de Monaco, soldat de la Grande Guerre - 2017

Thomas BLANCHY / Thomas FOUILLERON
Summary
Chronique bibliographique

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Chronique bibliographique

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Number 40 - 2016

Summary

This issue is mainly dedicated to culture. During the modern era, some princes of Monaco proved to be paints and books collectors. Some of the Rembrandt works are studied through Jacques I’s collection, and the library, which was scattered during the French Revolution, is now “brought back to life”. The epistolary relationship between Princess Alice and the writer Pierre Loti, is highlighted. The cultural aspect, in the sociological meaning of the term, is dealt with a study about Prince Honoré II’s funerals. Furthermore, an article describes the war, waged by Charles Grimaldi, in support of Anjou in the late Middle Ages, while another article refers to the disagreements in the press, during the separation of Menton and Roquebrune in the middle of the 19th century. To finish with, the document of the year is dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the creation of Monte-Carlo. (full texts in French)

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POWER AND MEN OF WAR AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES. CHARLES GRIMALDI'S SERVICE TO THE ANJOUS AND THE KINGS OF FRANCE

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - POWER AND MEN OF WAR AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES. CHARLES GRIMALDI'S SERVICE TO THE ANJOUS AND THE KINGS OF FRANCE

Up through the first half of the 14th century, the kings and princes of the territories continued to rely primarily on military service, turning to the chivalry in particular, in order to wage their war as successfully as possible. However, at the end of the Middle Ages, recruiting soldiers in this manner increasingly meant providing pecuniary consideration, wages and in-kind compensation. Such was the case of Charles Grimaldi, who served the French monarchy and the Anjou dynasty over many long years. His enlistment enabled him to build political fame and financial power. (full text in French)

POWER AND MEN OF WAR AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES. CHARLES GRIMALDI'S SERVICE TO THE ANJOUS AND THE KINGS OF FRANCE - 2016

Inès IGIER-PASSET
Summary
SPLENDOR AND GREATNESS OF THE PRINCE. THE FUNERAL OF HONORE II OF MONACO, AS RECOUNTED BY DON FRANCESCO BOTTINO (1662)

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - SPLENDOR AND GREATNESS OF THE PRINCE. THE FUNERAL OF HONORE II OF MONACO, AS RECOUNTED BY DON FRANCESCO BOTTINO (1662)

Honoré II (1597-1662), the first of the Grimaldis to bear the title "Prince of Monaco", instituted a true monarchy. He modeled his system largely after that of the French royalty and forged an alliance with France in 1641 in order to leave the Spanish protectorate.

The chaplain Don Francesco Bottino provided a detailed printed account of the prince's royal funeral, which he himself organized and presided over. The chaplain pronounced the funeral oration on November 4, 1662, the same day as the majestic, solemn funeral ceremony, ten months after the prince's January 10th passing and the presentation of the prince's mortal remains at the palace and the burial ceremony, which took place on January 12th in the St. Sebastian chapel of St. Nicholas Church.

The November funeral ceremony, which followed in the grand Baroque tradition, which one was modeled on the magnificent Italian funeral services, satisfied two aims : the glorification of the actions, virtues ans Christian faith of the deceased and above all, the enthronement of Louis, his successor. The funeral as performance served to coronate the heir. In order to illustrate the princely genealogy, it was essential that the decoration process, featuring numerous statues, sayings, allegories and ephemeral sculptures, be sumptuous. The facade, naves and choir were completely covered with drapery and epitaphs as means of illustrating the origins and power of this monarchy by divine right. The cenotaph, placed on top the catafalque, paid spectacular homage to the deceased by raising him up to God and reminding everyone of the dynasty's glory. (full text in French)

SPLENDOR AND GREATNESS OF THE PRINCE. THE FUNERAL OF HONORE II OF MONACO, AS RECOUNTED BY DON FRANCESCO BOTTINO (1662) - 2016

Michelle NOERO
Summary
REMBRANDT'S PAINTINGS IN THE COLLECTION OF JACQUES I OF MONACO, DUKE OF VALENTINOIS

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - REMBRANDT'S PAINTINGS IN THE COLLECTION OF JACQUES I OF MONACO, DUKE OF VALENTINOIS

Jacques-François-Leonor de Matignon (1689-1751), who took the throne as Jacques I, "pièce rapportée dans la dynastie Grimaldi", created a great picture Gallery ; he also moved part of the Monegasque collections to his house of Passy and Torigni, particularly though to his magnificent Parisian mansion, the Hotel de Matignon. He overcame the Italianate taste of his predecessors, showing to be deeply broadminded towards Europe and really passionate for Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, prince of the Dutch painters of the Golden age. About twenty Rembrandt's paintings were found in inventories and records of the Archives, either originals or copies. The purpose of this article is to introduce the splendid Self-portrait, the charming Portrait of a man holding gloves, in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, the Portrait of a man in a board brimmed hat, in the Japanese Kawamura Mémorial Museum of Art, the mysterious Jewess (Christie's London) and the Admiral Cornelis Tromp from the Louvre Museum. (full text in French)

REMBRANDT'S PAINTINGS IN THE COLLECTION OF JACQUES I OF MONACO, DUKE OF VALENTINOIS - 2016

Francesca BOTTACIN
Summary
PALACE OF MONACO'S VANISHED LIBRARY FROM RENAISSANCE TO RESTORATION

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - PALACE OF MONACO'S VANISHED LIBRARY FROM RENAISSANCE TO RESTORATION

The archives, and more specifically the post mortem inventories, teach us that the ancient palace of Monaco's library has existed since at least the Renaissance and was continuously enriched through all major periods of history before completely disappearing under the influence of revolutionary confiscations. The review of its collections allow us to better understand its relations with the lords and the princes of Monaco, as well as their entourage. It also confirms their importance, quantitatively and in quality, which has made of the palace of Monaco's library at least equal of its homologues, notably the French ones. (full text in French)

PALACE OF MONACO'S VANISHED LIBRARY FROM RENAISSANCE TO RESTORATION - 2016

Yves GIRAUDON
Summary
THE MENTON "SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES" THROUGH L'ECHO DES ALPES MARITIMES : FEATHER WARS AND CLASH OF OPINIONS

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - THE MENTON "SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES" THROUGH L'ECHO DES ALPES MARITIMES : FEATHER WARS AND CLASH OF OPINIONS

Under the cloak of the Italian "springtime of the peoples", Menton, principal city of the principality of Monaco, rebelled against the prince. The rebels demanded that the same reforms as those by Charles-Albert I in the kingdom of Sardinia surrounding the Monegasque territory. Nevertheless, noticing the hesitations of Florestan I to realize a new government, which would allow Menton to have the same political role as in the demographic and economic area, the rebels decided to secede. The process is considered unfounded by the prince and his partisans, the political conflict carries on through the newspapers in the neigbouring province, the Echo des Alpes Maritimes founded in January 1848 by about ten Niçois liberals guided by Auguste Carlone, a famous banker from Nice. The study concentrates on the way neo-publicist manage to implement a new public debate on the future of the principality if Monaco, led by some Mentonnais and Monegasque debating in the columns of the papers without having even seen or knowing each other, which enabled the writers to cleverly take position for the secessionist. (full text in French)

THE MENTON "SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES" THROUGH L'ECHO DES ALPES MARITIMES : FEATHER WARS AND CLASH OF OPINIONS - 2016

Julien CONTES
Summary
A SPIRITUAL FRIENDSHIP. PIERRE LOTI AND ALICE, PRINCESS OF MONACO

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - A SPIRITUAL FRIENDSHIP. PIERRE LOTI AND ALICE, PRINCESS OF MONACO

The name of Pierre Loti is too exclusively associated with the literary exoticism. He has been caricaturated as a perpetual nomad and it was also believed that his feminine ideal came down to his sensual heroins. Among all the attractive, cultured and well born ladies Pierre Loti met along his life, there was the Duchess Alice de Richelieu, who became Princess of Monaco (1857-1925). From 1884 to the French academician's death in 1923, Princess Alice and Pierre Loti had a very strong relationship, though not very well known. "Soul mates, we are", said Loti in 1894. To what she answered : "You are a kind of worship for me"... (full text in French) 

A SPIRITUAL FRIENDSHIP. PIERRE LOTI AND ALICE, PRINCESS OF MONACO - 2016

Alain QUELLA-VILLEGER
Summary
BERTON (1846-1909) VS BERTHON (1872-1934). TWO HOMONYMOUS ARTISTS WITH LINKS TO MONACO

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - BERTON (1846-1909) VS BERTHON (1872-1934). TWO HOMONYMOUS ARTISTS WITH LINKS TO MONACO

An unlikely and inexcusable confusion led, a few decades ago, to the "amalgamation" of two virtually homonymous French artists who both had some links with the Principality of Monaco. Paul Emile Berton (born in Chartrettes in 1846, died in Paris in 1909), each year from 1894 to 1903, showed landscapes at the International Exhibition of Fine Arts in Monte-Carlo. Paul Louis Joseph Berthon (born in Villefranche-sur-Saône in 1872, died in Sceaux in 1934) designed two bookshop posters for Prince Albert I's book, La Carrière d'un navigateur. At Princess Alice's request he produced several illustrations for the programmes of operas performed in 1900 at the Monte-Carlo Theatre. (full text in French)

BERTON (1846-1909) VS BERTHON (1872-1934). TWO HOMONYMOUS ARTISTS WITH LINKS TO MONACO - 2016

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
Summary
INVENTION OF A NAME, FOUNDING A CITY. MONTE CARLO, JUNE 1<sup>st</sup> 1866

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - INVENTION OF A NAME, FOUNDING A CITY. MONTE CARLO, JUNE 1st 1866

Behind the universally well-known name of Monte-Carlo, which keeps the memory of Charles III alive, builder Prince and founder of the modern Principality, there is a history. Fatherhood is plural, shared between François Blanc, the "wizard" of Monaco, the main shareholder of the Société des bains de mer, the Prince, and his General Governor Edward Imberty. It was then to forget a local place name, whose etymology could involve attacks against the casino. (full text in French)

INVENTION OF A NAME, FOUNDING A CITY. MONTE CARLO, JUNE 1st 1866 - 2016

Thomas FOUILLERON
Summary
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

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Number 39 - 2015

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On the occasion of the Russian year, and in order to make a link with the Russian exhibition which took place in the Palace of Monaco during summer 2015, a large part of this issue is dedicated to the relationships between the Grimaldi dynasty and Russia, and more precisely the Romanov family. Then, a study about the commercial relationships between the Principality in the Black sea and the Crimea in the Middle Ages, completes this issue. Two other articles deal with the correspondence of Prince Albert I with Massenet, and the history of Monaco pavilion at the universal exhibition. After that, two parts pay tribute to Princess Catherine-Charlotte de Gramont and Prince Pierre, and the document of the year refers to the wedding of Louise-Hippolyte in 1715. (full texts in French)

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THE GRIMALDI AND THE BLACK SEA IN THE MIDDLE AGES

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - THE GRIMALDI AND THE BLACK SEA IN THE MIDDLE AGES

The paper enhances first the economic role of the Black Sea between the West and the Mongol khanates in the 13th and 14th centuries and then describes what were the political functions and the economic activities of the members of the Grimaldi clan in the Genoese colonies of the Black Sea. (full text in French)

THE GRIMALDI AND THE BLACK SEA IN THE MIDDLE AGES - 2015

Michel BALARD & Oleg BARABANOV
Summary
ROMANOV & GRIMALDI. THREE CENTURIES OF HISTORY (XVII-XX CENTURIES)

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - ROMANOV & GRIMALDI. THREE CENTURIES OF HISTORY (XVII-XX CENTURIES)

The Grimaldi Family adopted the title of Prince of Monaco in 1612. The Romanov Family ascended the throne of Russia in 1613. In 1663, Russian Ambassadors discovered Monaco and its monarch. But the dynamic relations between the Russia sovereigns and the Monaco sovereigns really began during the 19th century, by the will of H.S.H. Prince Honoré V to forge links with Russia, which had an increased power after the Napoleonic wars.

Thanks to a courteous correspondence cadenced by the Family events and by the decorations exchanges, the links were accentuated until, at the end of the 19th century, the imperial Family, attracted by the mildness of the Mediterranean climate in winter, discovered the French Riviera and Monte-Carlo.

Consular relations were officially established in 1877 between both States. H.S.H. Prince Albert I was received for the first time in 1884 by Alexandre III. In 1896, for Czar Nicolas II's coronation, Louis, Prince Hereditary of Monaco, leads the Monegasque delegation to Moscow. On the eve of the First World War, Nicolas II authorized H.S.H. Prince Albert I to hunt the bison in his imperial domain of Biéloviège in Russian Poland. H.S.H. Prince of Monaco also built with Russia scholar, scientific and personal relations. He met Admiral Makaroff in Advent Bay, in Spitzberg Island in 1899 and was admitted in various Russian scholar until 1917. (full text in French)

ROMANOV & GRIMALDI. THREE CENTURIES OF HISTORY (XVII-XX CENTURIES) - 2015

Thomas BLANCHY, Igor DELANOE, Thomas FOUILLERON, Vladislava SERGIENKO
Summary
CATHERINE-CHARLOTTE DE GRAMONT'S NOVELISTIC LIFE, ACCORDING TO ALEXANDRE DUMAS

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - CATHERINE-CHARLOTTE DE GRAMONT'S NOVELISTIC LIFE, ACCORDING TO ALEXANDRE DUMAS

Alexandre Dumas published in 1854 Catherine-Charlotte de Gramont's (1639-1678) so-called "memoirs", under the title Vie et aventures de la Princesse de Monaco (Princess of Monaco's life and adventures). Written by Countess Dash, a friend of Alexandre Dumas, three "memoirs" actually are romanced biography of Marshal of Gramont's daughter, Princess of Monaco, Louis I's wife. The Duchess of Valentinois' life was adventurous, and shared between the intrigues of Louis XIV court, her love for the Duke of Lauzun and her stays in Monaco. She died when she was 39 yeasr old following a painful disease. Countess Dash présents in his way the historical reality in order to accentuate the romantic aspect of the heroine's life, even if it means making some nose-thumbing to the history. (full text in French)

CATHERINE-CHARLOTTE DE GRAMONT'S NOVELISTIC LIFE, ACCORDING TO ALEXANDRE DUMAS - 2015

Martine ROUSSEAU-CHATELAIN
Summary
REFLECTIONS OF THE PRINICIPALITY. MONACO'S PAVILIONS AT THE WORLD FAIRS 1873-1913

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - REFLECTIONS OF THE PRINICIPALITY. MONACO'S PAVILIONS AT THE WORLD FAIRS 1873-1913

In the middle of the 19th century Great Britain and France organised the first World Fairs of modern times. Prince Charles III and Francois Blanc decided by common consent to take part in this "concert of nations" in 1873. Henceforth Monaco participated in the majority of these events across Europe. Looking at these pavilions and what was exhibited there allow us to establish the growth of the Principlity not only in terms of the economy, but also culture, the arts ans sciences. It highlights the two tendencies revealed by the increasingly close study devoted to these international gatherings : the march towards the modern world and the affirmation of national identity. (full text in French)

REFLECTIONS OF THE PRINICIPALITY. MONACO'S PAVILIONS AT THE WORLD FAIRS 1873-1913 - 2015

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
Summary
"PRINCE OF SCIENCE AND ART, HELPFUL PRINCE". ALBERT I OF MONACO AND MASSENET

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - "PRINCE OF SCIENCE AND ART, HELPFUL PRINCE". ALBERT I OF MONACO AND MASSENET

Massenet forged privileged links with Albert I of Monaco, from 1902 until his death in 1912. Staying repeatedly in the Principality, which he assimilates to a heaven of peace compared to Paris, the French composer actively participates to the cultural Monegasque life by creating several of its operas or by participating in various artistic or commemorative events. (full text in French)

"PRINCE OF SCIENCE AND ART, HELPFUL PRINCE". ALBERT I OF MONACO AND MASSENET - 2015

Jean-Christophe BRANGER
Summary
AN INTERRUPTED FRIENDSHIP. MARCEL PROUST AND PIERRE OF MONACO

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - AN INTERRUPTED FRIENDSHIP. MARCEL PROUST AND PIERRE OF MONACO

We knew that there was a friendship ended with a sudden rupture between Marcel Proust and Prince Pierre. If the friendship cannot be explained, the quarrel is understandable. The witnesses, then the biographers, proposed explanations often inspired by the writer's reputation, his complex psychology and a certain taste for the sensational. This article proposes an analysis of the four letters and telegram that Marcel Proust addressed to Prince Pierreduring the summer 1920. We follow the meanders, always to be explored, of the "proustienne" friendship, we also detect the rich and sensitive personality of Prince Pierre. (full text in French)

AN INTERRUPTED FRIENDSHIP. MARCEL PROUST AND PIERRE OF MONACO - 2015

Jean-Marc QUARANTA & Jean-Yves TADIE
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FROM A KING TO ANOTHER. THE WEDDING CONTRACT OF LOUISE HIPPOLYTE, PRINCESS OF MONACO, AND JACQUES IV OF MATIGNON (SEPTEMBER 5, 1715)

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - FROM A KING TO ANOTHER. THE WEDDING CONTRACT OF LOUISE HIPPOLYTE, PRINCESS OF MONACO, AND JACQUES IV OF MATIGNON (SEPTEMBER 5, 1715)

On September 1, 1715, the Sun King died. Just a little more than a month before, he formally approved the conditions of the marriage of the heir to the Principality with Jacques de Matignon. Because of the last illness of the monarch, the contract is only signed on September 5, by the new King Louis XV, and by the Regency courtiers. According to the rules of succession of the Grimaldis, the husband must leave his family name and his coat of arms, but receives, as compensation, a title of duke and peer of France. (full text in French) 

FROM A KING TO ANOTHER. THE WEDDING CONTRACT OF LOUISE HIPPOLYTE, PRINCESS OF MONACO, AND JACQUES IV OF MATIGNON (SEPTEMBER 5, 1715) - 2015

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Number 38 - 2014

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This issue, published on the occasion of the First World War's centennial, is exclusively dedicated to this war in Monaco and around. Through different aspects, we understand the role that Monaco played in this conflict, in particular regarding its princes’ actions as soldiers and in favour of peace. (full texts in French)

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ALBERT I AND THE FRENCH-GERMAN RELATIONSHIPS (1898-1914)

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I AND THE FRENCH-GERMAN RELATIONSHIPS (1898-1914)

During the troubled times preceding the First World War, Prince Albert I clearly affirmed his wish to get closer to the german population. This will reached its limits because of the international events and tenacious mentalities. (full text in French)

ALBERT I AND THE FRENCH-GERMAN RELATIONSHIPS (1898-1914) - 2014

Jean-Rémy BEZIAS
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ALBERT I OF MONACO AND THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PEACE. A PACIFIST AND ARBITRATION ATTEMPT IN THE CORE OF THE WAR PROGRESSION (1903-1914)

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I OF MONACO AND THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PEACE. A PACIFIST AND ARBITRATION ATTEMPT IN THE CORE OF THE WAR PROGRESSION (1903-1914)

As a convinced pacifist, Albert I did everything he could to avoid the worst. The creation of the international institute for peace is one example. (full text in French)

ALBERT I OF MONACO AND THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PEACE. A PACIFIST AND ARBITRATION ATTEMPT IN THE CORE OF THE WAR PROGRESSION (1903-1914) - 2014

Christophe REVEILLARD
Summary
ALBERT I OF MONACO AND BERTHA VON SUTTNER. COMMON FIGHTS FOR PEACE IN THE EARLY 20 <sup>th</sup> CENTURY

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I OF MONACO AND BERTHA VON SUTTNER. COMMON FIGHTS FOR PEACE IN THE EARLY 20 th CENTURY

Baroness Bertha von Suttner wrote the famous novel entitled Die Waffen nieder, in 1889. In her writings, she wished world peace and Albert I was one of her important ally. (full text in French)

ALBERT I OF MONACO AND BERTHA VON SUTTNER. COMMON FIGHTS FOR PEACE IN THE EARLY 20 th CENTURY - 2014

Jean-Rémy BEZIAS
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ALBERT I OF MONACO. A PEACEFUL MAN FACING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I OF MONACO. A PEACEFUL MAN FACING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

This study deals with Prince Albert I who was a convinced pacifist, germanophile and francophile in 1914, when the First World War started. (full text in French)

ALBERT I OF MONACO. A PEACEFUL MAN FACING THE FIRST WORLD WAR - 2014

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE & Thomas FOUILLERON
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THE PREHISTORIAN INTERNATIONALIST PLAN AND THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT THE TURN OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE PREHISTORIAN INTERNATIONALIST PLAN AND THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT THE TURN OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

The paleontological institute was created in Paris in 1910 by Prince Albert I. Man of science, this sovereign was interested in the prehistory and the paleontology because scientists from several countries could collaborate. In an international movement, they shared his wish for global peace. (full text in French)

THE PREHISTORIAN INTERNATIONALIST PLAN AND THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT THE TURN OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR - 2014

Arnaud HUREL
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CAUGHT IN THE CROSSFIRE : THE PRIEST HUGO OBERMAIER, PROFESSOR AT THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, AND THE GREAT WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - CAUGHT IN THE CROSSFIRE : THE PRIEST HUGO OBERMAIER, PROFESSOR AT THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, AND THE GREAT WAR

This study profiles a man of science, whose concerns could not match the political events. (full text in French)

CAUGHT IN THE CROSSFIRE : THE PRIEST HUGO OBERMAIER, PROFESSOR AT THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, AND THE GREAT WAR - 2014

Jose María LANZAROTE GUIRAL
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THE SOCIÉTÉ DES BAINS DE MER OF MONACO FACING THE FRENCH ACTION DURING THE GREAT WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE SOCIÉTÉ DES BAINS DE MER OF MONACO FACING THE FRENCH ACTION DURING THE GREAT WAR

The Société des bains de mer of Monaco was at the origins of the “Monegasque miracle”, based on the casino and the hydropathic establishment which attracted wealthy customers. This article recounts the smear campaigns that the principality had to face during the First World War, as Monaco was accused of favouring the german spying. (full text in French)

 

THE SOCIÉTÉ DES BAINS DE MER OF MONACO FACING THE FRENCH ACTION DURING THE GREAT WAR - 2014

Méryl SILL
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BEAUSOLEIL, HEALTH CITY. ITS MILITARY HOSPITALS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - BEAUSOLEIL, HEALTH CITY. ITS MILITARY HOSPITALS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

When the First World War started, the operational theater was far from Monaco. However, due to its geographical location, the region benefitted from health cities favourable to the sending, accommation and medical care of wounded soldiers. Beausoleil was one of these. (full text in French)

BEAUSOLEIL, HEALTH CITY. ITS MILITARY HOSPITALS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR - 2014

Martine LE GAL
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THE MUSIC IN MONACO DURING THE GREAT WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE MUSIC IN MONACO DURING THE GREAT WAR

During the Great War, Monaco maintained its musical life. Among programming and ochestra’s compositions, a Monegasque compositor called Henri Crovetto, got inspired from the political events, to create his works and pay tribute to the Prince Albert I, along with other musicians. (full text in French)

THE MUSIC IN MONACO DURING THE GREAT WAR - 2014

Raphaëlle DOUBLIER
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THE GREAT WAR MEMORY SITES IN MONACO

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE GREAT WAR MEMORY SITES IN MONACO

This article presents the memory sites honouring the fallen men during the Great War, just like the war memorial located in the cemetery, the commemorative plaques in Sainte-Devote Church, in Albert I highschool, in the barracks of firemen and carabiniers, in the S.B.M. headoffice, and in different official entities of the principality. Finally, the author talks about some representative graves of soldiers. (full text in French)

THE GREAT WAR MEMORY SITES IN MONACO - 2014

Méryl SILL
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PRINCE LOUIS II OF MONACO : A 1914-1918 WAR VETERAN HONOURED BY HIS COINS AND MEDALS

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - PRINCE LOUIS II OF MONACO : A 1914-1918 WAR VETERAN HONOURED BY HIS COINS AND MEDALS

Prince Louis II, also called the “prince soldier”, was many time depicted on his medals and coins. That is the reason why this article recounts his prestigious soldier career, as well as the decorations he received. (full text in French)

PRINCE LOUIS II OF MONACO : A 1914-1918 WAR VETERAN HONOURED BY HIS COINS AND MEDALS - 2014

Christian CHARLET
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DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR : ALBERT I, PRINCE OF MONACO. THOUGHTS ABOUT SIXTEEN YEARS OF VISIT IN KIEL (JULY 1914)

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR : ALBERT I, PRINCE OF MONACO. THOUGHTS ABOUT SIXTEEN YEARS OF VISIT IN KIEL (JULY 1914)

This document, presented by Thomas Fouilleron and Jacqueline Carpine-Lancre, is fundamental to understand the Prince Albert I’s philosophy. Written before the War to start, it insisted on the fact that a lasting European peace would only be based on the Franco-German agreement. (full text in French)

 

DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR : ALBERT I, PRINCE OF MONACO. THOUGHTS ABOUT SIXTEEN YEARS OF VISIT IN KIEL (JULY 1914) - 2014

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Number 37 - 2013

Summary

This volume publishes the second part of the article about euro, but also a translation of a French work into Monegasque : Antigone, written by Jean Anouilh. Then, three articles deal with Honoré II (a portrait of Prince Honoré II’s wife, his correspondence with the Sauli family from Genoa, and the French policy initiated towards Italy). Two other articles deal with Albert I (his connection with the Mediterranean sea and the 1887 earthquake). Then, an article refers to the shared history of the Grimaldi and Matignon families, and the document of the year is dedicated to Picasso. (full texts in French)

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AN UNRELEASED PORTRAIT OF HIPPOLYTE TRIVULCE, THE FIRST PRINCESS OF MONACO, BY FEDE GALIZIA

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - AN UNRELEASED PORTRAIT OF HIPPOLYTE TRIVULCE, THE FIRST PRINCESS OF MONACO, BY FEDE GALIZIA

Fede Galizia was a painter from the 17th century. The Hippolyte Trivulce portrait she painted of Hippolyte Trivulce, Honoré II’s wife, is at the core of this article. Detailing the pigments used, the style, its composition and the character’s clothes, the author uses the results of recent scientific studies conducted about this paint. Moreover, she also gives details about the historical and pictorial context in order to have a better understanding. (full text in French)

AN UNRELEASED PORTRAIT OF HIPPOLYTE TRIVULCE, THE FIRST PRINCESS OF MONACO, BY FEDE GALIZIA - 2013

Tiziana ZENNARO
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NAVAL WARFARE, SPYING AND ART TRADE IN LIGURIA IN THE EARLY 17<sup>th</sup> CENTURY. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HONORÉ II AND GIOVANNI ANTONIO SAULI

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - NAVAL WARFARE, SPYING AND ART TRADE IN LIGURIA IN THE EARLY 17th CENTURY. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HONORÉ II AND GIOVANNI ANTONIO SAULI

Several topics are discussed within the correspondance between the sovereign of Monaco and Giovanni Antonio Sauli, whose family belonged to the Genoa oligarchy. Especially as the new prince had to impose on the European plan. The presented letters come from the princely palace’s archives, and are dated from 1628 to 1639, when Monaco was under the Spanish protectorate. (full text in French)

NAVAL WARFARE, SPYING AND ART TRADE IN LIGURIA IN THE EARLY 17th CENTURY. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HONORÉ II AND GIOVANNI ANTONIO SAULI - 2013

Luca LO BASSO & Michelle NOERO
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Monaco and the Italian strategy of France in the early XVIIth century

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - Monaco and the Italian strategy of France in the early XVIIth century

In the early XVIIth century, the French policy towards Italy was essential because conquering peninsula lands was a good opportunity to harm Spain. In this regard, Richelieu understood the importance of Monaco, which was under the Spanish protectorate and at the gates of the Italian province. Furthermore, the new prince intended to shake off the shackles.  The negociations concluded by the Treaty of Péronne in 1641, started from the 1630s. (full text in French)

Monaco and the Italian strategy of France in the early XVIIth century - 2013

Anna BLUM
Summary
THE GRIMALDIS AND THE MATIGNON LORDSHIP

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - THE GRIMALDIS AND THE MATIGNON LORDSHIP

On the occasion of Prince Albert II’s visit to three towns of the Matignon lands on the 5th and 6th july 2012, this article deals with the origins of the links between the Grimaldi family and the Matignons : the princess Louise-Hippolyte’s wedding with Jacques de Matignon in 1715. Then, the author describes the genesis of the prince’s Breton roots. (full text in French)

THE GRIMALDIS AND THE MATIGNON LORDSHIP - 2013

Didier MARSAUDON
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"MARE NOSTRUM ?"  PRINCE ALBERT I AND THE MEDITERRANEAN

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - "MARE NOSTRUM ?" PRINCE ALBERT I AND THE MEDITERRANEAN

Although heir and sovereign of a Mediterranean coast state, Prince Albert I was not attracted by this geographic area. According to him, the latin population was not as dynamic as people from Northern Europe. Nevertheless, until 1882, he visited several bordering countries such as Spain, Italy and North Africa. Among his scientific campaigns, less than twenty percent were executed in the Mediterranean. The international cooperation created the international commission for the Mediterranean sea’s scientific explorations, in the very beginning of the 20th century. (full text in French)

"MARE NOSTRUM ?" PRINCE ALBERT I AND THE MEDITERRANEAN - 2013

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
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THE 1887 EARTHQUAKE CONSEQUENCES IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - THE 1887 EARTHQUAKE CONSEQUENCES IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO

Important scientific documents, diagrams and photographies permit the author to give more details about a devastating event. This study is even more important because we know, for sure, the earthquake damages caused in Monaco. (full text in French)

THE 1887 EARTHQUAKE CONSEQUENCES IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO - 2013

Philippe MONDIELLI
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THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). SECOND PART.

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). SECOND PART.

This double anniversary is a great opportunity for the author to refer to the main money improvements under each reign. This is the second part of the article previously published in the Annales monégasques n° 36. (full text in French)

THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). SECOND PART. - 2013

Christian CHARLET
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“ANTIGONE” BY JEAN ANOUILH, IN MONEGASQUE SPEAKING LANGUAGE

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - “ANTIGONE” BY JEAN ANOUILH, IN MONEGASQUE SPEAKING LANGUAGE

Passionate about dialect, the translator of this play by Jean Anouilh – who died in 2008 – wrote three articles in the Annales monégasques n° 20, 24 and 29. They are all dedicated to the Monegasque language and writers. (full text in French)

“ANTIGONE” BY JEAN ANOUILH, IN MONEGASQUE SPEAKING LANGUAGE - 2013

René STEFANELLI
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DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR, PICASSO IN THE PALACE OF MONACO (1925)

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR, PICASSO IN THE PALACE OF MONACO (1925)

According to the visitor’s book, Picasso and Olga visited the princely Palace on April 14th 1925. The author makes a link between this visit and Picasso stay in Monaco, following Diaghilev’s invitation, in order to attend the first performance of the new Russian Ballets production. (full text in French)

DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR, PICASSO IN THE PALACE OF MONACO (1925) - 2013

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Number 36 - 2012

Summary

This issue presents the first part of a new topic : the Monegasque Euro. Regarding the other two studies, each one is dedicated to a new matter : the identity of the Monegasque nation through the revolutionary census, and a correspondence between the composer Camille Saint-Saëns and Prince Albert I. To finish with, the last article describes the relationships between the Holy See and Monaco, from the 14th to the 16th century. (full texts in French)

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FORT D’HERCULE OR THE (RE)-ESTABLISHED HOMELAND? THE CENSES DONE IN MONACO DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY TIME

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - FORT D’HERCULE OR THE (RE)-ESTABLISHED HOMELAND? THE CENSES DONE IN MONACO DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY TIME

Did people who lived in Monaco during the French Revolution, had the sense of belonging to a community? The pre-revolutionary censes do not give a lot of details as the aim was to establish a religious state for the priest needs. What kind of identity did the revolutionaries give to Monaco, a principality deprived of its prince? (full text in French)

FORT D’HERCULE OR THE (RE)-ESTABLISHED HOMELAND? THE CENSES DONE IN MONACO DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY TIME - 2012

Olivia ANTONI
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THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). FIRST PART.

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). FIRST PART.

This double anniversary is a great opportunity for the author to refer to the main money improvements under each reign. The next part of this article is published in the Annales monégasques n°37. (full text in French)

THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). FIRST PART. - 2012

Christian CHARLET
Summary
ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A CORRESPONDANCE BETWEEN PRINCE ALBERT I AND CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A CORRESPONDANCE BETWEEN PRINCE ALBERT I AND CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS

Massenet and Camille Saint-Saëns were Prince Albert I’s favorite compositors. Besides, the correspondence he had with both compositors highlights the protagonists’ friendship and mutual respect. The letters presented in this article only deal with Camille Saint-Saëns, from 1900 to 1921, and also refer to Raoul Gunsbourg, who was the director of the Opera of Monte-Carlo at that time. (full text in French)

ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A CORRESPONDANCE BETWEEN PRINCE ALBERT I AND CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS - 2012

Paule DRUILHE-FAVRE
Summary
ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE HOLY SEE AND MONACO (14<sup>th</sup>-16<sup>th</sup> CENTURIES)

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE HOLY SEE AND MONACO (14th-16th CENTURIES)

A relationship, an agreement, two bulls…  here are the texts chosen by the author so as to highlight the privileged link between the Holy See and Monaco. They are all extracted from the Palace’s archives, and are dated from the late 14th century to the early 16th century. (full text in French)

ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE HOLY SEE AND MONACO (14th-16th CENTURIES) - 2012

Yves GIRAUDON
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THE EXPEDITION OF JEAN I GRIMALDI, LORD OF MONACO, TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 1437

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - THE EXPEDITION OF JEAN I GRIMALDI, LORD OF MONACO, TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 1437

This study, which was done in 1908, is still hard to find nowadays. It deals with a little known part of Jean I’s life and personality, who had a taste for adventure, along the lines of men from his social environment. The author talks about this lord in the heart of the political events of that time. (full text in French)

THE EXPEDITION OF JEAN I GRIMALDI, LORD OF MONACO, TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 1437 - 2012

Léon-Honoré LABANDE
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ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCE HONORÉ III’S MILITARY NOTEBOOK

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCE HONORÉ III’S MILITARY NOTEBOOK

When he was very young, Honoré III was directed to a military career by his father the Duke of Valentinois. From 1736 to 1748, he took part to the battles led by the French kingdom, where he brilliantly distinghuished by assuming different ranks. (full text in French)

ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCE HONORÉ III’S MILITARY NOTEBOOK - 2012

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