Number 41 - 2017

Summary

The Monegasque commemoration of this year have strongly influenced the topics of this issue. Indeed, two hundred years ago, in 1817, the Stupinigi agreements linked Monaco to the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. From the 1848 secession to the official end of the Sardinian protectorate of the Principality in 1860, many vicissitudes have been heard. In 1917, a century ago, the battle of the “Chemin des Dames” gave the opportunity to the future Louis II to shine, as he was a volunteer within the French army. A notebook transposes the exhibition dedicated to the prince’s route during the Great War and has been shown to HSH the Prince Albert II in spring of 2017. Armand Lunel died fourty years ago, in 1977. Philosopher and writer less recognized today than he was previously, he taught over a lifetime in Monaco and was granted the Théophraste-Renaudot prize. Further to the great exhibition of this year in the Nouveau Musée national de Monaco about Hercule Florence, curious inventor of the 19th century, the first pages of his autobiography dedicated to his youth spent in Monaco have been published, annotated and commented. As part of the curriculum on the ancient princes’ art collections, a point about Rubens is made in this issue. An iconic and illuminated document from the Archives of the Palace is here highlighted : Hercule I’s doctorate diploma in canon and civil law, dated 1584. The former dynasty fiefs are presented through an architectural monograph of the castle of Torigni located in Normandy and which was one of the Princes’s residence in the 18th century. The modern historical period is also mentioned thanks to various relationships maintained by Monaco and Venice in the 17th and 18th centuries. To finish with, in order to satisfy the collectors, a study is dedicated to a topic which may look anecdotal : the Monegasque matchboxes from the 19th to nowadays, the evolution of which reflects another image of the Principality.

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A princely château in Normandy. Torigni, from Robert of Gloucester to the Grimaldis

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - A princely château in Normandy. Torigni, from Robert of Gloucester to the Grimaldis

Now largely destroyed, the château of Torigni used to be one of the greatest and noblest houses in Normandy, and was in the 18th century one of the principal residences of the princes of Monaco. Numerous archival documents, mainly preserved in the Palace Archives, allow to trace its history: at first a fortified castle built for an illegitimate son of King Henry Beauclerc of England, it was reconstructed in the mid-14th century before becoming in the 16th century a much more sumptuous house. Jacques II de Matignon built a large château whose fronts, designed by a member of the Du Cerceau family, were covered with stone bosses. His descendants had this great building improved by new interior decorations, the most important being the cycle of paintings ordered in 1651 from Claude Vignon. A large park was created near the château, and a great cascade was built in the early 18th century. However, these landscaping were destroyed after the French Revolution, which lead to the loss of the majority of this great princely residence. (full text in French)

Un château princier en Normandie - Torigni, de Robert de Gloucester aux Grimaldi - 2017

Étienne FAISANT
Summary
In utroque jure. The diploma of doctorate obtained by Hercule Grimaldi in 1584 at the University of Pavia. Translation and comments

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - In utroque jure. The diploma of doctorate obtained by Hercule Grimaldi in 1584 at the University of Pavia. Translation and comments

The diploma of doctorate in canon and civil law, obtained by Hercule Grimaldi in 1584 at the University of Pavia, is translated here from latin and commented. In addition to its outstanding aesthetic and technical quality, this charter contains a lot of informations about the doctorate in law in the 16th century, its requirements and procedures, at that special time of Europe’s history, during the Counter-Reformation. Moreover, the doctorate obtained by Hercule demonstrates real Grimaldi’s interest in University, which can play an important role not only in instructing monarchs, but also in promoting the symbolic image of the dynasty, by honouring its remarkable figures. (full text in French)

In utroque jure - Le diplôme de doctorat obtenu par Hercule Grimaldi à l’université de Pavie en 1584 - Traduction et commentaires - 2017

Yves GIRAUDON
Summary
The lion and the dove. Venice and Monaco at the XVII and XVIII centuries

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - The lion and the dove. Venice and Monaco at the XVII and XVIII centuries

At first sight, Principality and Serenissima were, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, two independent States that geography, history, politic, and economic separated more than they gathered. Even so, Antoine I’s « Grand Tour » is a problem; how can we explain his long presence in the city of the Doges (nearly one month), unlike he stayed only a few days in the other towns he crossed? Perhaps because his father, Louis I, had ties that were transcribed in many ways. Which ones and how? Did his successors continue them? Quite always, everything has to do with this prince. (full text in French)

Le lion et la colombe - Venise et Monaco aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles - 2017

Olivia ANTONI
Summary
Rubens in the princes of Monaco collections (17th-18th centuries)

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Rubens in the princes of Monaco collections (17th-18th centuries)

The great charm of Peter Paul Rubens, the painter of the Seventeenth-century European courts, could not be grabbed by the Grimaldi House: Honoré II inventories include some paintings attributed to him, while Antoine I requested the Monegasque painter Jean-Augustin Vento for some copies of his celebrated Maria de Medici Cycle. Anyway his most passionate admirer was Jacques I: among the paintings attributed to the Flemish master in his possession, we can find the so-called Le fils de Paul Rubens, a beautiful portrait so far preserved. The painting, currently at the Städel Museum in Frankfurt, is now attributed to Cornelis de Vos, a great Flemish portraitist and also Rubens collaborator. It is identified as the portrait of his daughter Susanna. (full text in French)

Rubens dans les collections des princes de Monaco (XVIIe-XVIIIe siècle) - 2017

Francesca BOTTACIN
Summary
Ancestry and monegasque youth in Monaco. An inquisitive man at the XIX century. Hercule Florence (1804-1879)

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Ancestry and monegasque youth in Monaco. An inquisitive man at the XIX century. Hercule Florence (1804-1879)

Not surprisingly, Hercule Florence’s personality owes its debt to his childhood and parenthood. He wrote some pages about this time in Nice and Monaco, which are here published, introduced by our own researches helping to know better these 1793-1823 years around the young inventor and his parents. We tried here to enhance the documents existing in the Archives of Monaco, of Nice and the Alpes-Maritimes, sometimes supporting, sometimes correcting Hercule Florence’s memories. (full text in French)

Ascendance et jeunesse monégasque d’un curieux du XIXe siècle - Hercule Florence (1804-1879) - 2017

Thierry THOMAS
Summary
The Stupinigi Treaties of 1817 and the Franco-Sardinian-Monegasque Territorial : Dispute between 1848 and 1860

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - The Stupinigi Treaties of 1817 and the Franco-Sardinian-Monegasque Territorial : Dispute between 1848 and 1860

In 1817, the plenipotentiaries of the prince of Monaco and of the king of Sardinia signed in Turin the two treaties which established and regulated the protectorate of Sardinia on the principality of Monaco which lasted until 1860 when the ancient Savoy county of Nice and the villes libres of Menton and Roquebrune were annexed to France. The treaties were ratified by king Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia on 8 and 11 november 1817 in the royal hunting castle of Stupinigi, close to Turin. Today, almost two centuries after the treaties of Stupinigi, we want to commemorate the most significant events that marked this period so interesting from a historical and diplomatic profile. This essay examines in detail some aspects of the Franco-Sardinian-Monegasque diplomatic and territorial controversy under the Stupinigi treaties. (full text in French)

Les traités de Stupinigi de 1817 et le différend territorial franco-sardo-monégasque entre 1848 et 1860 - 2017

Pier Maria STABILE
Summary
Armand Lunel à Monaco. Strange ways, between literature, history and pilosophy

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Armand Lunel à Monaco. Strange ways, between literature, history and pilosophy

The award-winning writer and philosophy teacher, Armand Lunel (1892-1977) received the Théophraste-Renaudot first prize in 1926 and marked several generations of pupils through his teaching from 1920 to 1953 at the High School in Monaco (Lycée de Monaco). Throughout his life he constantly declared his unceasing esteem for the Prince and his family as well as for the inhabitants of a country that he loved as much as the figures from his own Provençal childhood. Although his works reveal little of his deep attachment to Monaco, his commitment to the activities of various associations and institutions in his capacity as a prominent literary figure made him a true cultural ambassador for Monaco in France and in the world. Finally, the course of Lunel’s life and career is significantly representative of the hardships faced by a Jewish civil servant during World War II, dismissed by Vichy, protected by the Princely family and reinstated at the Liberation by the Monegasque government. (full text in French)

Armand Lunel à Monaco - Par d’étranges chemins, entre littérature, histoire et philosophie - 2017

Stéphane LAMOTTE
Summary
The monegasque matches. Notes about Phillumeny (XIX-XXI century)

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - The monegasque matches. Notes about Phillumeny (XIX-XXI century)

In early 1892, the state took over the distribution of matches in Monaco. After half a century of French boxes surcharged « monaco », the first illustrated boxes and books appeared around 1950. Their initial “woodcut” style was later replaced by beautiful photographic illustrations on sold boxes and by advertisements, especially for cigarettes and other products of the Régie monégasque, mainly on boxes for free distribution. From a technical point of view, the wooden boxes disappear to the benefit of cardboard boxes, and the books simply glued took the place of the old tacked ones. (full text in French)

Les allumettes monégasques - Notes de philuménie (XIXe-XXIe siècle) - 2017

Wolfgang MAIER
Summary
Exposition - Un prince engagé volontaire - Louis II de Monaco, soldat de la Grande Guerre

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Exposition - Un prince engagé volontaire - Louis II de Monaco, soldat de la Grande Guerre

Exposition - Un prince engagé volontaire - Louis II de Monaco, soldat de la Grande Guerre - 2017

Thomas BLANCHY / Thomas FOUILLERON
Summary
Chronique bibliographique

Article from Number 41 - 2017 - Chronique bibliographique

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Chronique bibliographique - 2017

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Number 40 - 2016

Summary

This issue is mainly dedicated to culture. During the modern era, some princes of Monaco proved to be paints and books collectors. Some of the Rembrandt works are studied through Jacques I’s collection, and the library, which was scattered during the French Revolution, is now “brought back to life”. The epistolary relationship between Princess Alice and the writer Pierre Loti, is highlighted. The cultural aspect, in the sociological meaning of the term, is dealt with a study about Prince Honoré II’s funerals. Furthermore, an article describes the war, waged by Charles Grimaldi, in support of Anjou in the late Middle Ages, while another article refers to the disagreements in the press, during the separation of Menton and Roquebrune in the middle of the 19th century. To finish with, the document of the year is dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the creation of Monte-Carlo. (full texts in French)

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POWER AND MEN OF WAR AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES. CHARLES GRIMALDI'S SERVICE TO THE ANJOUS AND THE KINGS OF FRANCE

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - POWER AND MEN OF WAR AT THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES. CHARLES GRIMALDI'S SERVICE TO THE ANJOUS AND THE KINGS OF FRANCE

Up through the first half of the 14th century, the kings and princes of the territories continued to rely primarily on military service, turning to the chivalry in particular, in order to wage their war as successfully as possible. However, at the end of the Middle Ages, recruiting soldiers in this manner increasingly meant providing pecuniary consideration, wages and in-kind compensation. Such was the case of Charles Grimaldi, who served the French monarchy and the Anjou dynasty over many long years. His enlistment enabled him to build political fame and financial power. (full text in French)

POUVOIR ET GENS DE GUERRE À LA FIN DU MOYEN ÂGE. CHARLES GRIMALDI AU SERVICE DES ANJOU ET DES ROIS DE FRANCE - 2016

Inès IGIER-PASSET
Summary
SPLENDOR AND GREATNESS OF THE PRINCE. THE FUNERAL OF HONORE II OF MONACO, AS RECOUNTED BY DON FRANCESCO BOTTINO (1662)

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - SPLENDOR AND GREATNESS OF THE PRINCE. THE FUNERAL OF HONORE II OF MONACO, AS RECOUNTED BY DON FRANCESCO BOTTINO (1662)

Honoré II (1597-1662), the first of the Grimaldis to bear the title "Prince of Monaco", instituted a true monarchy. He modeled his system largely after that of the French royalty and forged an alliance with France in 1641 in order to leave the Spanish protectorate.

The chaplain Don Francesco Bottino provided a detailed printed account of the prince's royal funeral, which he himself organized and presided over. The chaplain pronounced the funeral oration on November 4, 1662, the same day as the majestic, solemn funeral ceremony, ten months after the prince's January 10th passing and the presentation of the prince's mortal remains at the palace and the burial ceremony, which took place on January 12th in the St. Sebastian chapel of St. Nicholas Church.

The November funeral ceremony, which followed in the grand Baroque tradition, which one was modeled on the magnificent Italian funeral services, satisfied two aims : the glorification of the actions, virtues ans Christian faith of the deceased and above all, the enthronement of Louis, his successor. The funeral as performance served to coronate the heir. In order to illustrate the princely genealogy, it was essential that the decoration process, featuring numerous statues, sayings, allegories and ephemeral sculptures, be sumptuous. The facade, naves and choir were completely covered with drapery and epitaphs as means of illustrating the origins and power of this monarchy by divine right. The cenotaph, placed on top the catafalque, paid spectacular homage to the deceased by raising him up to God and reminding everyone of the dynasty's glory. (full text in French)

FASTES ET GRANDEUR DU PRINCE. LES FUNÉRAILLES D’HONORÉ II DE MONACO D’APRÈS LA RELATION DE DON FRANCESCO BOTTINO (1662) - 2016

Michelle NOERO
Summary
REMBRANDT'S PAINTINGS IN THE COLLECTION OF JACQUES I OF MONACO, DUKE OF VALENTINOIS

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - REMBRANDT'S PAINTINGS IN THE COLLECTION OF JACQUES I OF MONACO, DUKE OF VALENTINOIS

Jacques-François-Leonor de Matignon (1689-1751), who took the throne as Jacques I, "pièce rapportée dans la dynastie Grimaldi", created a great picture Gallery ; he also moved part of the Monegasque collections to his house of Passy and Torigni, particularly though to his magnificent Parisian mansion, the Hotel de Matignon. He overcame the Italianate taste of his predecessors, showing to be deeply broadminded towards Europe and really passionate for Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, prince of the Dutch painters of the Golden age. About twenty Rembrandt's paintings were found in inventories and records of the Archives, either originals or copies. The purpose of this article is to introduce the splendid Self-portrait, the charming Portrait of a man holding gloves, in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, the Portrait of a man in a board brimmed hat, in the Japanese Kawamura Mémorial Museum of Art, the mysterious Jewess (Christie's London) and the Admiral Cornelis Tromp from the Louvre Museum. (full text in French)

REMBRANDT DANS LA COLLECTION DE TABLEAUX DE JACQUES Ier DE MONACO, DUC DE VALENTINOIS - 2016

Francesca BOTTACIN
Summary
PALACE OF MONACO'S VANISHED LIBRARY FROM RENAISSANCE TO RESTORATION

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - PALACE OF MONACO'S VANISHED LIBRARY FROM RENAISSANCE TO RESTORATION

The archives, and more specifically the post mortem inventories, teach us that the ancient palace of Monaco's library has existed since at least the Renaissance and was continuously enriched through all major periods of history before completely disappearing under the influence of revolutionary confiscations. The review of its collections allow us to better understand its relations with the lords and the princes of Monaco, as well as their entourage. It also confirms their importance, quantitatively and in quality, which has made of the palace of Monaco's library at least equal of its homologues, notably the French ones. (full text in French)

LA BIBLIOTHÈQUE DISPARUE DU PALAIS DE MONACO DE LA RENAISSANCE À LA RESTAURATION - 2016

Yves GIRAUDON
Summary
THE MENTON "SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES" THROUGH L'ECHO DES ALPES MARITIMES : FEATHER WARS AND CLASH OF OPINIONS

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - THE MENTON "SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES" THROUGH L'ECHO DES ALPES MARITIMES : FEATHER WARS AND CLASH OF OPINIONS

Under the cloak of the Italian "springtime of the peoples", Menton, principal city of the principality of Monaco, rebelled against the prince. The rebels demanded that the same reforms as those by Charles-Albert I in the kingdom of Sardinia surrounding the Monegasque territory. Nevertheless, noticing the hesitations of Florestan I to realize a new government, which would allow Menton to have the same political role as in the demographic and economic area, the rebels decided to secede. The process is considered unfounded by the prince and his partisans, the political conflict carries on through the newspapers in the neigbouring province, the Echo des Alpes Maritimes founded in January 1848 by about ten Niçois liberals guided by Auguste Carlone, a famous banker from Nice. The study concentrates on the way neo-publicist manage to implement a new public debate on the future of the principality if Monaco, led by some Mentonnais and Monegasque debating in the columns of the papers without having even seen or knowing each other, which enabled the writers to cleverly take position for the secessionist. (full text in French)

LE « PRINTEMPS DES PEUPLES » MENTONNAIS À TRAVERS L’ÉCHO DES ALPES MARITIMES : GUERRES DE PLUMES ET CONFRONTATIONS D’OPINIONS - 2016

Julien CONTES
Summary
A SPIRITUAL FRIENDSHIP. PIERRE LOTI AND ALICE, PRINCESS OF MONACO

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - A SPIRITUAL FRIENDSHIP. PIERRE LOTI AND ALICE, PRINCESS OF MONACO

The name of Pierre Loti is too exclusively associated with the literary exoticism. He has been caricaturated as a perpetual nomad and it was also believed that his feminine ideal came down to his sensual heroins. Among all the attractive, cultured and well born ladies Pierre Loti met along his life, there was the Duchess Alice de Richelieu, who became Princess of Monaco (1857-1925). From 1884 to the French academician's death in 1923, Princess Alice and Pierre Loti had a very strong relationship, though not very well known. "Soul mates, we are", said Loti in 1894. To what she answered : "You are a kind of worship for me"... (full text in French) 

« FRÈRES D’ÂME ». PIERRE LOTI ET LA PRINCESSE ALICE DE MONACO - 2016

Alain QUELLA-VILLEGER
Summary
BERTON (1846-1909) VS BERTHON (1872-1934). TWO HOMONYMOUS ARTISTS WITH LINKS TO MONACO

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - BERTON (1846-1909) VS BERTHON (1872-1934). TWO HOMONYMOUS ARTISTS WITH LINKS TO MONACO

An unlikely and inexcusable confusion led, a few decades ago, to the "amalgamation" of two virtually homonymous French artists who both had some links with the Principality of Monaco. Paul Emile Berton (born in Chartrettes in 1846, died in Paris in 1909), each year from 1894 to 1903, showed landscapes at the International Exhibition of Fine Arts in Monte-Carlo. Paul Louis Joseph Berthon (born in Villefranche-sur-Saône in 1872, died in Sceaux in 1934) designed two bookshop posters for Prince Albert I's book, La Carrière d'un navigateur. At Princess Alice's request he produced several illustrations for the programmes of operas performed in 1900 at the Monte-Carlo Theatre. (full text in French)

BERTON (1846-1909) VS BERTHON (1872-1934). DEUX ARTISTES HOMONYMES LIÉS À MONACO - 2016

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
Summary
INVENTION OF A NAME, FOUNDING A CITY. MONTE CARLO, JUNE 1<sup>st</sup> 1866

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - INVENTION OF A NAME, FOUNDING A CITY. MONTE CARLO, JUNE 1st 1866

Behind the universally well-known name of Monte-Carlo, which keeps the memory of Charles III alive, builder Prince and founder of the modern Principality, there is a history. Fatherhood is plural, shared between François Blanc, the "wizard" of Monaco, the main shareholder of the Société des bains de mer, the Prince, and his General Governor Edward Imberty. It was then to forget a local place name, whose etymology could involve attacks against the casino. (full text in French)

DOCUMENT DE L’ANNÉE. INVENTION D’UN NOM, FONDATION D’UNE VILLE. MONTE-CARLO, 1er JUIN 1866 - 2016

Thomas FOUILLERON
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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

Article from Number 40 - 2016 - BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

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CHRONIQUE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE - 2016

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Number 39 - 2015

Summary

On the occasion of the Russian year, and in order to make a link with the Russian exhibition which took place in the Palace of Monaco during summer 2015, a large part of this issue is dedicated to the relationships between the Grimaldi dynasty and Russia, and more precisely the Romanov family. Then, a study about the commercial relationships between the Principality in the Black sea and the Crimea in the Middle Ages, completes this issue. Two other articles deal with the correspondence of Prince Albert I with Massenet, and the history of Monaco pavilion at the universal exhibition. After that, two parts pay tribute to Princess Catherine-Charlotte de Gramont and Prince Pierre, and the document of the year refers to the wedding of Louise-Hippolyte in 1715. (full texts in French)

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THE GRIMALDI AND THE BLACK SEA IN THE MIDDLE AGES

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - THE GRIMALDI AND THE BLACK SEA IN THE MIDDLE AGES

The paper enhances first the economic role of the Black Sea between the West and the Mongol khanates in the 13th and 14th centuries and then describes what were the political functions and the economic activities of the members of the Grimaldi clan in the Genoese colonies of the Black Sea. (full text in French)

LES GRIMALDI ET LA MER NOIRE AU MOYEN ÂGE - 2015

Michel BALARD & Oleg BARABANOV
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ROMANOV & GRIMALDI. THREE CENTURIES OF HISTORY (XVII-XX CENTURIES)

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - ROMANOV & GRIMALDI. THREE CENTURIES OF HISTORY (XVII-XX CENTURIES)

The Grimaldi Family adopted the title of Prince of Monaco in 1612. The Romanov Family ascended the throne of Russia in 1613. In 1663, Russian Ambassadors discovered Monaco and its monarch. But the dynamic relations between the Russia sovereigns and the Monaco sovereigns really began during the 19th century, by the will of H.S.H. Prince Honoré V to forge links with Russia, which had an increased power after the Napoleonic wars.

Thanks to a courteous correspondence cadenced by the Family events and by the decorations exchanges, the links were accentuated until, at the end of the 19th century, the imperial Family, attracted by the mildness of the Mediterranean climate in winter, discovered the French Riviera and Monte-Carlo.

Consular relations were officially established in 1877 between both States. H.S.H. Prince Albert I was received for the first time in 1884 by Alexandre III. In 1896, for Czar Nicolas II's coronation, Louis, Prince Hereditary of Monaco, leads the Monegasque delegation to Moscow. On the eve of the First World War, Nicolas II authorized H.S.H. Prince Albert I to hunt the bison in his imperial domain of Biéloviège in Russian Poland. H.S.H. Prince of Monaco also built with Russia scholar, scientific and personal relations. He met Admiral Makaroff in Advent Bay, in Spitzberg Island in 1899 and was admitted in various Russian scholar until 1917. (full text in French)

ROMANOV ET GRIMALDI. TROIS SIÈCLES D'HISTOIRE (XVIIe-XXe SIÈCLE) - 2015

Thomas BLANCHY, Igor DELANOE, Thomas FOUILLERON, Vladislava SERGIENKO
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CATHERINE-CHARLOTTE DE GRAMONT'S NOVELISTIC LIFE, ACCORDING TO ALEXANDRE DUMAS

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - CATHERINE-CHARLOTTE DE GRAMONT'S NOVELISTIC LIFE, ACCORDING TO ALEXANDRE DUMAS

Alexandre Dumas published in 1854 Catherine-Charlotte de Gramont's (1639-1678) so-called "memoirs", under the title Vie et aventures de la Princesse de Monaco (Princess of Monaco's life and adventures). Written by Countess Dash, a friend of Alexandre Dumas, three "memoirs" actually are romanced biography of Marshal of Gramont's daughter, Princess of Monaco, Louis I's wife. The Duchess of Valentinois' life was adventurous, and shared between the intrigues of Louis XIV court, her love for the Duke of Lauzun and her stays in Monaco. She died when she was 39 yeasr old following a painful disease. Countess Dash présents in his way the historical reality in order to accentuate the romantic aspect of the heroine's life, even if it means making some nose-thumbing to the history. (full text in French)

LA VIE ROMANESQUE DE CATHERINE-CHARLOTTE DE GRAMONT, PRINCESSE DE MONACO, VUE PAR ALEXANDRE DUMAS - 2015

Martine ROUSSEAU-CHATELAIN
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REFLECTIONS OF THE PRINICIPALITY. MONACO'S PAVILIONS AT THE WORLD FAIRS 1873-1913

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - REFLECTIONS OF THE PRINICIPALITY. MONACO'S PAVILIONS AT THE WORLD FAIRS 1873-1913

In the middle of the 19th century Great Britain and France organised the first World Fairs of modern times. Prince Charles III and Francois Blanc decided by common consent to take part in this "concert of nations" in 1873. Henceforth Monaco participated in the majority of these events across Europe. Looking at these pavilions and what was exhibited there allow us to establish the growth of the Principlity not only in terms of the economy, but also culture, the arts ans sciences. It highlights the two tendencies revealed by the increasingly close study devoted to these international gatherings : the march towards the modern world and the affirmation of national identity. (full text in French)

MIROIRS DE LA PRINCIPAUTÉ. LES PAVILLONS DE MONACO AUX EXPOSITIONS UNIVERSELLES (1873-1913) - 2015

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
Summary
"PRINCE OF SCIENCE AND ART, HELPFUL PRINCE". ALBERT I OF MONACO AND MASSENET

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - "PRINCE OF SCIENCE AND ART, HELPFUL PRINCE". ALBERT I OF MONACO AND MASSENET

Massenet forged privileged links with Albert I of Monaco, from 1902 until his death in 1912. Staying repeatedly in the Principality, which he assimilates to a heaven of peace compared to Paris, the French composer actively participates to the cultural Monegasque life by creating several of its operas or by participating in various artistic or commemorative events. (full text in French)

PRINCE DE SCIENCE ET D'ART, PRINCE UTILE. ALBERT Ier DE MONACO ET MASSENET - 2015

Jean-Christophe BRANGER
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AN INTERRUPTED FRIENDSHIP. MARCEL PROUST AND PIERRE OF MONACO

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - AN INTERRUPTED FRIENDSHIP. MARCEL PROUST AND PIERRE OF MONACO

We knew that there was a friendship ended with a sudden rupture between Marcel Proust and Prince Pierre. If the friendship cannot be explained, the quarrel is understandable. The witnesses, then the biographers, proposed explanations often inspired by the writer's reputation, his complex psychology and a certain taste for the sensational. This article proposes an analysis of the four letters and telegram that Marcel Proust addressed to Prince Pierreduring the summer 1920. We follow the meanders, always to be explored, of the "proustienne" friendship, we also detect the rich and sensitive personality of Prince Pierre. (full text in French)

UNE AMITIÉ INTERROMPUE. MARCEL PROUST ET PIERRE DE MONACO - 2015

Jean-Marc QUARANTA & Jean-Yves TADIE
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FROM A KING TO ANOTHER. THE WEDDING CONTRACT OF LOUISE HIPPOLYTE, PRINCESS OF MONACO, AND JACQUES IV OF MATIGNON (SEPTEMBER 5, 1715)

Article from Number 39 - 2015 - FROM A KING TO ANOTHER. THE WEDDING CONTRACT OF LOUISE HIPPOLYTE, PRINCESS OF MONACO, AND JACQUES IV OF MATIGNON (SEPTEMBER 5, 1715)

On September 1, 1715, the Sun King died. Just a little more than a month before, he formally approved the conditions of the marriage of the heir to the Principality with Jacques de Matignon. Because of the last illness of the monarch, the contract is only signed on September 5, by the new King Louis XV, and by the Regency courtiers. According to the rules of succession of the Grimaldis, the husband must leave his family name and his coat of arms, but receives, as compensation, a title of duke and peer of France. (full text in French) 

DOCUMENT DE L'ANNÉE. D'UN ROI À L'AUTRE. LE CONTRAT DE MARIAGE DE LOUISE-HIPPOLYTE DE MONACO AVEC JACQUES IV DE MATIGNON (5 SEPTEMBRE 1715) - 2015

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

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Number 38 - 2014

Summary

This issue, published on the occasion of the First World War's centennial, is exclusively dedicated to this war in Monaco and around. Through different aspects, we understand the role that Monaco played in this conflict, in particular regarding its princes’ actions as soldiers and in favour of peace. (full texts in French)

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ALBERT I AND THE FRENCH-GERMAN RELATIONSHIPS (1898-1914)

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I AND THE FRENCH-GERMAN RELATIONSHIPS (1898-1914)

During the troubled times preceding the First World War, Prince Albert I clearly affirmed his wish to get closer to the german population. This will reached its limits because of the international events and tenacious mentalities. (full text in French)

ALBERT Ier ET LES RELATIONS FRANCO-ALLEMANDES (1898-1914) - 2014

Jean-Rémy BEZIAS
Summary
ALBERT I OF MONACO AND THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PEACE. A PACIFIST AND ARBITRATION ATTEMPT IN THE CORE OF THE WAR PROGRESSION (1903-1914)

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I OF MONACO AND THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PEACE. A PACIFIST AND ARBITRATION ATTEMPT IN THE CORE OF THE WAR PROGRESSION (1903-1914)

As a convinced pacifist, Albert I did everything he could to avoid the worst. The creation of the international institute for peace is one example. (full text in French)

ALBERT Ier DE MONACO ET L'INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DE LA PAIX. UNE TENTATIVE PACIFISTE D'ARBITRAGE AU CŒUR DE LA MARCHE VERS LA GUERRE (1903-1914) - 2014

Christophe REVEILLARD
Summary
ALBERT I OF MONACO AND BERTHA VON SUTTNER. COMMON FIGHTS FOR PEACE IN THE EARLY 20 <sup>th</sup> CENTURY

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I OF MONACO AND BERTHA VON SUTTNER. COMMON FIGHTS FOR PEACE IN THE EARLY 20 th CENTURY

Baroness Bertha von Suttner wrote the famous novel entitled Die Waffen nieder, in 1889. In her writings, she wished world peace and Albert I was one of her important ally. (full text in French)

ALBERT Ier DE MONACO ET BERTHA VON SUTTNER. DES COMBATS COMMUNS AU SERVICE DE LA PAIX AU DÉBUT DU XXe SIÈCLE - 2014

Jean-Rémy BEZIAS
Summary
ALBERT I OF MONACO. A PEACEFUL MAN FACING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - ALBERT I OF MONACO. A PEACEFUL MAN FACING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

This study deals with Prince Albert I who was a convinced pacifist, germanophile and francophile in 1914, when the First World War started. (full text in French)

ALBERT Ier DE MONACO. UN HOMME DE PAIX FACE À LA PREMIÈRE GUERRE MONDIALE - 2014

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE & Thomas FOUILLERON
Summary
THE PREHISTORIAN INTERNATIONALIST PLAN AND THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT THE TURN OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE PREHISTORIAN INTERNATIONALIST PLAN AND THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT THE TURN OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

The paleontological institute was created in Paris in 1910 by Prince Albert I. Man of science, this sovereign was interested in the prehistory and the paleontology because scientists from several countries could collaborate. In an international movement, they shared his wish for global peace. (full text in French)

LE PROJET INTERNATIONALISTE DES PRÉHISTORIENS ET L'INSTITUT DE PALÉONTOLOGIE HUMAINE AU TOURNANT DE LA PREMIÈRE GUERRE MONDIALE - 2014

Arnaud HUREL
Summary
CAUGHT IN THE CROSSFIRE : THE PRIEST HUGO OBERMAIER, PROFESSOR AT THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, AND THE GREAT WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - CAUGHT IN THE CROSSFIRE : THE PRIEST HUGO OBERMAIER, PROFESSOR AT THE PALEONTOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, AND THE GREAT WAR

This study profiles a man of science, whose concerns could not match the political events. (full text in French)

PRIS ENTRE DEUX FEUX. L’ABBÉ OBERMAIER, PROFESSEUR DE L'INSTITUT DE PALÉONTOLOGIE HUMAINE ET LA GRANDE GUERRE - 2014

Jose María LANZAROTE GUIRAL
Summary
THE SOCIÉTÉ DES BAINS DE MER OF MONACO FACING THE FRENCH ACTION DURING THE GREAT WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE SOCIÉTÉ DES BAINS DE MER OF MONACO FACING THE FRENCH ACTION DURING THE GREAT WAR

The Société des bains de mer of Monaco was at the origins of the “Monegasque miracle”, based on the casino and the hydropathic establishment which attracted wealthy customers. This article recounts the smear campaigns that the principality had to face during the First World War, as Monaco was accused of favouring the german spying. (full text in French)

 

LA GRANDE GUERRE DES MOTS. LA CAMPAGNE DE L'ACTION FRANÇAISE CONTRE MONACO - 2014

Méryl SILL
Summary
BEAUSOLEIL, HEALTH CITY. ITS MILITARY HOSPITALS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - BEAUSOLEIL, HEALTH CITY. ITS MILITARY HOSPITALS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

When the First World War started, the operational theater was far from Monaco. However, due to its geographical location, the region benefitted from health cities favourable to the sending, accommation and medical care of wounded soldiers. Beausoleil was one of these. (full text in French)

BEAUSOLEIL, VILLE SANITAIRE. SES HÔPITAUX MILITAIRES DURANT LA PREMIÈRE GUERRE MONDIALE - 2014

Martine LE GAL
Summary
THE MUSIC IN MONACO DURING THE GREAT WAR

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE MUSIC IN MONACO DURING THE GREAT WAR

During the Great War, Monaco maintained its musical life. Among programming and ochestra’s compositions, a Monegasque compositor called Henri Crovetto, got inspired from the political events, to create his works and pay tribute to the Prince Albert I, along with other musicians. (full text in French)

LA GRANDE GUERRE EN MUSIQUE VUE DE MONACO - 2014

Raphaëlle DOUBLIER
Summary
THE GREAT WAR MEMORY SITES IN MONACO

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - THE GREAT WAR MEMORY SITES IN MONACO

This article presents the memory sites honouring the fallen men during the Great War, just like the war memorial located in the cemetery, the commemorative plaques in Sainte-Devote Church, in Albert I highschool, in the barracks of firemen and carabiniers, in the S.B.M. headoffice, and in different official entities of the principality. Finally, the author talks about some representative graves of soldiers. (full text in French)

LES LIEUX DE MÉMOIRE DE LA GRANDE GUERRE À MONACO - 2014

Méryl SILL
Summary
PRINCE LOUIS II OF MONACO : A 1914-1918 WAR VETERAN HONOURED BY HIS COINS AND MEDALS

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - PRINCE LOUIS II OF MONACO : A 1914-1918 WAR VETERAN HONOURED BY HIS COINS AND MEDALS

Prince Louis II, also called the “prince soldier”, was many time depicted on his medals and coins. That is the reason why this article recounts his prestigious soldier career, as well as the decorations he received. (full text in French)

LE PRINCE LOUIS II DE MONACO : UN ANCIEN COMBATTANT DE 1914-1918 HONORÉ PAR SES MONNAIES ET SES MÉDAILLES - 2014

Christian CHARLET
Summary
DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR : ALBERT I, PRINCE OF MONACO. THOUGHTS ABOUT SIXTEEN YEARS OF VISIT IN KIEL (JULY 1914)

Article from Number 38 - 2014 - DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR : ALBERT I, PRINCE OF MONACO. THOUGHTS ABOUT SIXTEEN YEARS OF VISIT IN KIEL (JULY 1914)

This document, presented by Thomas Fouilleron and Jacqueline Carpine-Lancre, is fundamental to understand the Prince Albert I’s philosophy. Written before the War to start, it insisted on the fact that a lasting European peace would only be based on the Franco-German agreement. (full text in French)

 

ALBERT Ier, PRINCE DE MONACO. RÉFLEXIONS SUR SEIZE ANNÉES DE VISITES À KIEL (JUILLET 1914) - 2014

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

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Number 37 - 2013

Summary

This volume publishes the second part of the article about euro, but also a translation of a French work into Monegasque : Antigone, written by Jean Anouilh. Then, three articles deal with Honoré II (a portrait of Prince Honoré II’s wife, his correspondence with the Sauli family from Genoa, and the French policy initiated towards Italy). Two other articles deal with Albert I (his connection with the Mediterranean sea and the 1887 earthquake). Then, an article refers to the shared history of the Grimaldi and Matignon families, and the document of the year is dedicated to Picasso. (full texts in French)

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AN UNRELEASED PORTRAIT OF HIPPOLYTE TRIVULCE, THE FIRST PRINCESS OF MONACO, BY FEDE GALIZIA

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - AN UNRELEASED PORTRAIT OF HIPPOLYTE TRIVULCE, THE FIRST PRINCESS OF MONACO, BY FEDE GALIZIA

Fede Galizia was a painter from the 17th century. The Hippolyte Trivulce portrait she painted of Hippolyte Trivulce, Honoré II’s wife, is at the core of this article. Detailing the pigments used, the style, its composition and the character’s clothes, the author uses the results of recent scientific studies conducted about this paint. Moreover, she also gives details about the historical and pictorial context in order to have a better understanding. (full text in French)

UN PORTRAIT INÉDIT D'HIPPOLYTE TRIVULCE, PREMIÈRE PRINCESSE DE MONACO, PAR FEDE GALIZIA - 2013

Tiziana ZENNARO
Summary
NAVAL WARFARE, SPYING AND ART TRADE IN LIGURIA IN THE EARLY 17<sup>th</sup> CENTURY. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HONORÉ II AND GIOVANNI ANTONIO SAULI

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - NAVAL WARFARE, SPYING AND ART TRADE IN LIGURIA IN THE EARLY 17th CENTURY. THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HONORÉ II AND GIOVANNI ANTONIO SAULI

Several topics are discussed within the correspondance between the sovereign of Monaco and Giovanni Antonio Sauli, whose family belonged to the Genoa oligarchy. Especially as the new prince had to impose on the European plan. The presented letters come from the princely palace’s archives, and are dated from 1628 to 1639, when Monaco was under the Spanish protectorate. (full text in French)

GUERRE NAVALE, ESPIONNAGE ET COMMERCE D'ŒUVRES D'ART EN LIGURIE AU DÉBUT DU XVIIe SIÈCLE. LA CORRESPONDANCE ENTRE HONORÉ II DE MONACO ET GIOVANNI ANTONIO SAULI - 2013

Luca LO BASSO & Michelle NOERO
Summary
Monaco and the Italian strategy of France in the early XVIIth century

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - Monaco and the Italian strategy of France in the early XVIIth century

In the early XVIIth century, the French policy towards Italy was essential because conquering peninsula lands was a good opportunity to harm Spain. In this regard, Richelieu understood the importance of Monaco, which was under the Spanish protectorate and at the gates of the Italian province. Furthermore, the new prince intended to shake off the shackles.  The negociations concluded by the Treaty of Péronne in 1641, started from the 1630s. (full text in French)

MONACO ET LA STRATÉGIE ITALIENNE DE LA FRANCE AU DÉBUT DU XVIIe SIÈCLE - 2013

Anna BLUM
Summary
THE GRIMALDIS AND THE MATIGNON LORDSHIP

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - THE GRIMALDIS AND THE MATIGNON LORDSHIP

On the occasion of Prince Albert II’s visit to three towns of the Matignon lands on the 5th and 6th july 2012, this article deals with the origins of the links between the Grimaldi family and the Matignons : the princess Louise-Hippolyte’s wedding with Jacques de Matignon in 1715. Then, the author describes the genesis of the prince’s Breton roots. (full text in French)

LES GRIMALDI ET LA SEIGNEURIE DE MATIGNON - 2013

Didier MARSAUDON
Summary
"MARE NOSTRUM ?"  PRINCE ALBERT I AND THE MEDITERRANEAN

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - "MARE NOSTRUM ?" PRINCE ALBERT I AND THE MEDITERRANEAN

Although heir and sovereign of a Mediterranean coast state, Prince Albert I was not attracted by this geographic area. According to him, the latin population was not as dynamic as people from Northern Europe. Nevertheless, until 1882, he visited several bordering countries such as Spain, Italy and North Africa. Among his scientific campaigns, less than twenty percent were executed in the Mediterranean. The international cooperation created the international commission for the Mediterranean sea’s scientific explorations, in the very beginning of the 20th century. (full text in French)

MARE NOSTRUM ? LE PRINCE ALBERT Ier DE MONACO ET LA MÉDITERRANÉE - 2013

Jacqueline CARPINE-LANCRE
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THE 1887 EARTHQUAKE CONSEQUENCES IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - THE 1887 EARTHQUAKE CONSEQUENCES IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO

Important scientific documents, diagrams and photographies permit the author to give more details about a devastating event. This study is even more important because we know, for sure, the earthquake damages caused in Monaco. (full text in French)

LES EFFETS DU SÉISME DE 1887 DANS LA PRINCIPAUTÉ DE MONACO - 2013

Philippe MONDIELLI
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THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). SECOND PART.

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). SECOND PART.

This double anniversary is a great opportunity for the author to refer to the main money improvements under each reign. This is the second part of the article previously published in the Annales monégasques n° 36. (full text in French)

LES DIX ANS DE L'EURO MONÉGASQUE (2002-2012). QUATRE SIÈCLES APRÈS L'AFFIRMATION DU DROIT DE BATTRE MONNAIE (1612). DEUXIÈME PARTIE - 2013

Christian CHARLET
Summary
“ANTIGONE” BY JEAN ANOUILH, IN MONEGASQUE SPEAKING LANGUAGE

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - “ANTIGONE” BY JEAN ANOUILH, IN MONEGASQUE SPEAKING LANGUAGE

Passionate about dialect, the translator of this play by Jean Anouilh – who died in 2008 – wrote three articles in the Annales monégasques n° 20, 24 and 29. They are all dedicated to the Monegasque language and writers. (full text in French)

ANTIGONE DE JEAN ANOUILH EN LANGUE MONÉGASQUE - 2013

René STEFANELLI
Summary
DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR, PICASSO IN THE PALACE OF MONACO (1925)

Article from Number 37 - 2013 - DOCUMENT OF THE YEAR, PICASSO IN THE PALACE OF MONACO (1925)

According to the visitor’s book, Picasso and Olga visited the princely Palace on April 14th 1925. The author makes a link between this visit and Picasso stay in Monaco, following Diaghilev’s invitation, in order to attend the first performance of the new Russian Ballets production. (full text in French)

DOCUMENT DE L'ANNÉE, PICASSO AU PALAIS DE MONACO (1925) - 2013

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

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Number 36 - 2012

Summary

This issue presents the first part of a new topic : the Monegasque Euro. Regarding the other two studies, each one is dedicated to a new matter : the identity of the Monegasque nation through the revolutionary census, and a correspondence between the composer Camille Saint-Saëns and Prince Albert I. To finish with, the last article describes the relationships between the Holy See and Monaco, from the 14th to the 16th century. (full texts in French)

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FORT D’HERCULE OR THE (RE)-ESTABLISHED HOMELAND? THE CENSES DONE IN MONACO DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY TIME

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - FORT D’HERCULE OR THE (RE)-ESTABLISHED HOMELAND? THE CENSES DONE IN MONACO DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY TIME

Did people who lived in Monaco during the French Revolution, had the sense of belonging to a community? The pre-revolutionary censes do not give a lot of details as the aim was to establish a religious state for the priest needs. What kind of identity did the revolutionaries give to Monaco, a principality deprived of its prince? (full text in French)

FORT-D'HERCULE OU LA PATRIE (RE)CONSTITUÉE ? LES RECENSEMENTS EFFECTUÉS À MONACO PENDANT L'ÉPOQUE RÉVOLUTIONNAIRE - 2012

Olivia ANTONI
Summary
THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). FIRST PART.

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MONEGASQUE EURO (2002-2012), FOUR CENTURIES AFTER THE RIGHT TO ISSUE COINS (1612). FIRST PART.

This double anniversary is a great opportunity for the author to refer to the main money improvements under each reign. The next part of this article is published in the Annales monégasques n°37. (full text in French)

LES DIX ANS DE L'EURO MONÉGASQUE (2002-2012), QUATRE SIÈCLES APRÈS L'AFFIRMATION DU DROIT DE BATTRE MONNAIE (1612). PREMIÈRE PARTIE - 2012

Christian CHARLET
Summary
ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A CORRESPONDANCE BETWEEN PRINCE ALBERT I AND CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A CORRESPONDANCE BETWEEN PRINCE ALBERT I AND CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS

Massenet and Camille Saint-Saëns were Prince Albert I’s favorite compositors. Besides, the correspondence he had with both compositors highlights the protagonists’ friendship and mutual respect. The letters presented in this article only deal with Camille Saint-Saëns, from 1900 to 1921, and also refer to Raoul Gunsbourg, who was the director of the Opera of Monte-Carlo at that time. (full text in French)

DOCUMENTS D'ARCHIVES : UNE CORRESPONDANCE ENTRE LE PRINCE ALBERT Ier ET CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS - 2012

Paule DRUILHE-FAVRE
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ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE HOLY SEE AND MONACO (14<sup>th</sup>-16<sup>th</sup> CENTURIES)

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE HOLY SEE AND MONACO (14th-16th CENTURIES)

A relationship, an agreement, two bulls…  here are the texts chosen by the author so as to highlight the privileged link between the Holy See and Monaco. They are all extracted from the Palace’s archives, and are dated from the late 14th century to the early 16th century. (full text in French)

DOCUMENTS D'ARCHIVES : LE SAINT-SIÈGE ET MONACO (XIVe-XVIe SIÈCLE) - 2012

Yves GIRAUDON
Summary
THE EXPEDITION OF JEAN I GRIMALDI, LORD OF MONACO, TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 1437

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - THE EXPEDITION OF JEAN I GRIMALDI, LORD OF MONACO, TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 1437

This study, which was done in 1908, is still hard to find nowadays. It deals with a little known part of Jean I’s life and personality, who had a taste for adventure, along the lines of men from his social environment. The author talks about this lord in the heart of the political events of that time. (full text in French)

L’EXPÉDITION DE JEAN Ier GRIMALDI, SEIGNEUR DE MONACO, À CONSTANTINOPLE. 1437 - 2012

Léon-Honoré LABANDE
Summary
ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCE HONORÉ III’S MILITARY NOTEBOOK

Article from Number 36 - 2012 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCE HONORÉ III’S MILITARY NOTEBOOK

When he was very young, Honoré III was directed to a military career by his father the Duke of Valentinois. From 1736 to 1748, he took part to the battles led by the French kingdom, where he brilliantly distinghuished by assuming different ranks. (full text in French)

DOCUMENTS D'ARCHIVES : UN CAHIER DE COURS MILITAIRES DU PRINCE HONORÉ III - 2012

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Number 35 - 2011

Summary

This issue echoes some previous articles of Annales monégasques, as it covers some similar topics: the Menton’s confraternity of penitents (Monaco’s confraternity of penitents was studied in issues n°15 and 16) or the International Circus Festival, whose background was covered in the previous issue. Regarding the other studies, they refer to politics, Honoré III’s wedding, the 1911 Constitution, and photographs of the Palace of Monaco in the XIXth century. (full texts in French)

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THE MENTON’S CONFRATERNITIES OF PENITENTS AND THEIR CHAPELS

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - THE MENTON’S CONFRATERNITIES OF PENITENTS AND THEIR CHAPELS

After having dealt with the white and black confraternities, and the Archconfraternity of Monaco (see Annales monégasques n°15, 16 and 28), the author now talks about their counterpart from Menton. Indeed, until 1861 and its secession to France, Menton was part of the principality and as a result, had a common religious history. (full text in French)

LES CONFRÉRIES DE PÉNITENTS DE MENTON ET LEURS CHAPELLES - 2011

Louis BAUDOIN
Summary
ROYAL WEDDING. HONORÉ III AND MARIE-CATHERINE DE BRIGNOLE SALE

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - ROYAL WEDDING. HONORÉ III AND MARIE-CATHERINE DE BRIGNOLE SALE

This article presents a talks analysis about the wedding of Honoré III, some detailed plans and ceremonies. This marriage was important because the bride was not French as she came from Genoa, and that this was the last wedding before the French Revolution. (full text in French)

MARIAGE PRINCIER. HONORÉ III ET MARIE-CATHERINE DE BRIGNOLE-SALE - 2011

Claude-Aline ENCENAS
Summary
HOW DID THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO BECOME A CONSTITUTIONAL STATE ?

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - HOW DID THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO BECOME A CONSTITUTIONAL STATE ?

On January, 5th 1911, Prince Albert I granted his subjects a Constitution which transformed the absolute monarchy into a modern law, based on a constitutional system. The author presents the legal details of such a fundamental change. Indeed, adjustments have been made since 1911, and this constitution is the base of the current political life in Monaco. (full text in French)

COMMENT LA PRINCIPAUTÉ DE MONACO EST DEVENUE UN ÉTAT CONSTITUTIONNEL ? - 2011

Georges GRINDA
Summary
THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO : THIRTY-SIX YEARS AGO

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO : THIRTY-SIX YEARS AGO

This article presents the circus festival year after year until 2010, with the originalities depending on the represented countries. It also highlights the new circus acts which became more and more aesthetics. (full text in French)

LE FESTIVAL INTERNATIONAL DU CIRQUE DE MONTE-CARLO : DÉJÀ TRENTE-SIX ANS - 2011

Martine ROUSSEAU-CHATELAIN
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ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCELY PALACE IN THE END OF THE 19<sup>th</sup> CENTURY, AS SEEN BY THE PHOTOGRAPH WALBURG DE BRAY

Article from Number 35 - 2011 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : THE PRINCELY PALACE IN THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY, AS SEEN BY THE PHOTOGRAPH WALBURG DE BRAY

Jean Auguste Théodore de Bray, also called Walburg de Bray, was a famous photographer in his time. His original glass plates kept in the princely palace’s archives, are published for the very first time. (full text in French)

DOCUMENTS D'ARCHIVES : LE PALAIS PRINCIER À LA FIN DU XIXer SIÈCLE, VU PAR LE PHOTOGRAPHE WALBURG DE BRAY - 2011

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Number 34 - 2010

Summary

The third and last part of the Duke of Valentinois’ travel diary is presented in this issue, as well as two articles relatively contemporary : the first one is dedicated to an episode which took place during World War II in Monaco, while the other one recounts the creation of the International Circus Festival by Prince Rainier III. Lastly, the history of the Monaco Visitation Order and archives documents written in the 15th century, are both topics also covered in this issue. (full texts in French)

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THE ORDER OF THE VISITATION OF HOLY MARY IN MONACO (1663-1793)

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - THE ORDER OF THE VISITATION OF HOLY MARY IN MONACO (1663-1793)

The Order of the visitation of Holy Mary was founded in 1610 by Saint-François de Sales and Saint-Jeanne de Chantal.  Its history, from its origins to its dismantling, illustrates the Monegasque society of the 17th and 18th centuries. The princes of Monaco and their family were close to this Order. (full text in French)

L'ORDRE DE LA VISITATION SAINTE-MARIE À MONACO (1663-1793) - 2010

Olivia ANTONI
Summary
PRINCE RAINIER III CREATED THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - PRINCE RAINIER III CREATED THE INTERNATIONAL CIRCUS FESTIVAL OF MONTE-CARLO

Richly illustrated by archives photographies, this article covers the history of the International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo, which is nowadays a key event. But this has not always been the case… (full text in French)

LE PRINCE RAINIER III CRÉE LE FESTIVAL DU CIRQUE DE MONTE-CARLO - 2010

Maryse BIANCHERI
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DECEMBER, 14<sup>th</sup> 1943 : THE NETZTENDER 44 TORPEDOING IN THE PORT OF MONACO

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - DECEMBER, 14th 1943 : THE NETZTENDER 44 TORPEDOING IN THE PORT OF MONACO

The torpedoing of the german ship Netztender 44 is not a well-known episode of Second World War which occurred in the principality. Relying on different testimonies of that time and a detailed reconstruction, this article tells us more about this period, when Monaco, a haven of peace, also faced several civilian casualties. (full text in French)

14 DÉCEMBRE 1943 : LE TORPILLAGE DU NETZTENDER 44 DANS LE PORT DE MONACO - 2010

Christian BURLE/André Z. LABARRERE
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ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : ABOUT JEAN I, LORD OF MONACO (1419-1454)

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : ABOUT JEAN I, LORD OF MONACO (1419-1454)

Two documents, of the utmost historical importance, are translated from latin and preceded by some instructions. They refer to Jean Grimaldi’s feudal investiture and the donation of Menton and Roquebrune lordships by the Duke of Savoy (December 19th 1448). Then, the documents present Jean’s will, “charte fondamentale du droit grimaldien” (April, 5th 1454). (full text in French)

DOCUMENTS D'ARCHIVES : AUTOUR DE JEAN Ier, SEIGNEUR DE MONACO (1419-1454) - 2010

Yves GIRAUDON
Summary
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). THIRD PART.

Article from Number 34 - 2010 - THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). THIRD PART.

In this third and last part, Prince Antoine describes several cities, among which Suze, Chambéry, Geneva, Lausanne, Basel, Strasbourg, Manheim, Stuttgart, Munich, Francfort, Mayence, Cologne, Utrecht and Amsterdam. The duke hurriedly went back to Paris after this stay, without mentioning any explanation. Was it his father’s wish as the journey took a long time? (full text in French)

JOURNAL DE VOYAGE DU PRINCE ANTOINE DE MONACO EN ITALIE ET EN ALLEMAGNE (1679-1680). TROISIÈME PARTIE - 2010

Gustave SAIGE
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Number 33 - 2009

Summary

This volume publishes the second parts of Aurelia Spinola’s life and the Duke of Valentinois’ travel diary. Besides, two other articles are dedicated to art in the 18th century : a musical correspondence, and the wanderings of a Monegasque painter, called Jean-Baptiste Vignali. Lastly, a study recounts a quite funny episode which took place in Roquebrune in the 19th century. (full texts in French)

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ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A MUSICAL CORRESPONDENCE IN THE 18<sup>th</sup> CENTURY

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A MUSICAL CORRESPONDENCE IN THE 18th CENTURY

Prince Antoine I was well-known as being the “musician prince”. His passion for the music was so intense that he constituted an orchestra who played Italian or French scores every day. However, he only corresponded with French composers. This article is based on quotes from some letters between the prince and Destouches, Couperin, Pécourt and Rebel, in particular from 1722 to 1731. (full text in French)

DOCUMENTS D'ARCHIVES : UNE CORRESPONDANCE MUSICALE AU XVIIIe SIÈCLE - 2009

Paule DRUILHE-FAVRE
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PRINCELY PATRONAGE AND ASSERTION DURING THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT. HONORÉ III AND THE MONEGASQUE PAINTER JEAN-BAPTISTE VIGNALI

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - PRINCELY PATRONAGE AND ASSERTION DURING THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT. HONORÉ III AND THE MONEGASQUE PAINTER JEAN-BAPTISTE VIGNALI

This article deals with the patron role adopted by the princes of Monaco, relying on the example of the Monegasque painter named Jean-Baptiste Vignali. He was taught thanks to Honoré III’s generosity and had an enviable career in France and in Italy, ruined by the French Revolution hazards.  (full text in French)

MÉCÉNAT PRINCIER ET AFFIRMATION POLITIQUE AU TEMPS DES LUMIÈRES. HONORÉ III ET LE PEINTRE MONÉGASQUE JEAN-BAPTISTE VIGNALI - 2009

Thomas FOUILLERON
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THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17<sup>th</sup> CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. SECOND PART.

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - THE FATE OF AURELIA SPINOLA, AN ARISTOCRAT FROM THE 17th CENTURY, STRUGGLED BETWEEN GENOA, MONACO AND FRANCE. SECOND PART.

This is the second part of the article about Aurelia Spinola, published in the previous review, whose history is told by a clergyman named Francesco Fluvio Frugoni. He also depicted the lifestyle of the Honoré II’s Court. (full text in French)

LE DESTIN D'AURELIA SPINOLA, UNE ARISTOCRATE DU XVIIe SIÈCLE PARTAGÉE ENTRE GÊNES, MONACO ET LA FRANCE. DEUXIÈME PARTIE - 2009

Raffaella NOERO
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ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A PIECE OF EVIDENCE IN THE CASE "DE LA CASSETTE" IN ROQUEBRUNE (1819)

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - ARCHIVES DOCUMENTS : A PIECE OF EVIDENCE IN THE CASE "DE LA CASSETTE" IN ROQUEBRUNE (1819)

At that time, much has been written about what happened in 1819, in Roquebrune village. According to Honoré V, this was an “absurd mystification” and a political affront, but it created an idolatry phenomenon within the population. (full text in French)

DOCUMENTS D'ARCHIVES : UNE PIÈCE À CONVICTION DE L'AFFAIRE DE LA CASSETTE À ROQUEBRUNE (1819) - 2009

Claude PASSET
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THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). SECOND PART.

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - THE TRAVEL JOURNAL OF PRINCE ANTOINE OF MONACO, IN ITALY AND GERMANY (1679-1680). SECOND PART.

In this second part, the Duke of Valentinois mainly wrote down about Rome, and described several cities like Spoletto, Bologne, Modena, Parma, Plaisance, Pavia, Milan, Bergame, Mantoue, Ferrare, Malamocco, Venice, Padoue, Verceil and put an end to his trip in Turin, in Savoy at that time. The last part, published in the Annales monégasques n°34, deals with Swiss and German cities. (full text in French)

JOURNAL DE VOYAGE DU PRINCE ANTOINE DE MONACO EN ITALIE ET EN ALLEMAGNE (1679-1680). DEUXIÈME PARTIE - 2009

Gustave SAIGE
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IN MEMORIAM : JEAN-BAPTISTE ROBERT

Article from Number 33 - 2009 - IN MEMORIAM : JEAN-BAPTISTE ROBERT

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IN MEMORIAM : JEAN-BAPTISTE ROBERT - 2009

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